Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 558, Issue 1, pp 33–40 | Cite as

Phenotypic Variations in the Life History of Two Clones of Macrobiotus richtersi (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae)

  • Tiziana Altiero
  • Lorena Rebecchi
  • Roberto Bertolani
Article

Abstract

A comparative study of life history traits of two clones (CDMr01 and CDMr02) of a triploid thelytokous apomictic population of the eutardigrade Macrobiotus  richtersi has been carried out. Both clones were reared under the same lab conditions: temperature of 14 °C, photoperiod of 12 h/12 h (L/D), and nematodes ad libitum as food. Statistical analysis of the life history traits considered has indicated interclonal variability. The two clones were significantly different in the number of eggs per clutch (fertility), number of eggs laid per female per life span (fecundity), hatching percentage of eggs and hatching time. Similarities between clones have been observed with regard to life span, total number of ovipositions per life span, and age at first oviposition. In addition, significant differences in hatching time, with eggs hatched over a long period, were found within each clone. Interclonal variability in life history traits indicated the effects of genetic factors, whereas intraclonal variability reflected the effects of environmental factors. The evolutionary and adaptive significance of the life history phenotypic variations is discussed.

Keywords

Macrobiotus richtersi life history clones clonal variability Tardigrada apomixis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altiero, T., Rebecchi, L. 2001Rearing tardigrades: results and problemsZoologischer Anzeiger240217221Google Scholar
  2. Ammerman, D. 1962Parthenogenese bei dem Tardigraden Hypsibius  dujardini (Doy.)Naturwissenschaften49115116Google Scholar
  3. Ammerman, D. 1967Die Cytologie der Parthenogenese bei dem Tardigraden Hypsibius  dujardiniChromosoma23203213Google Scholar
  4. Barata, C., Baird, D. J., Soares, A. M. V. M. 2001Phenotypic plasticity in Daphnia magna Straus: variable maturation instar as an adaptive response to predation pressureOecologia129220227Google Scholar
  5. Baumann, H. 1961Der Lebensablauf von Hypsibius (H.) convergens Urbanowicz (Tardigrada)Zoologischer Anzeiger167363381Google Scholar
  6. Baumann, H. 1964Über den Lebenslauf und die Lebensweise von Milnesium tardigradum Doyère (Tardigrada)Veröffentlichungen aus den Übersee-Museum Bremen3161171Google Scholar
  7. Baumann, H. 1966Lebenslauf und Lebensweise von Hypsibius (H.) oberhaeuseri Doyère (Tardigrada). Veröffentlichungen aus den Übersee-MuseumBremen3245258Google Scholar
  8. Baumann, H. 1970Lebenslauf und Lebensweise von Macrobiotus  hufelandi Schultze (Tardigrada). Veröffentlichungen aus den Übersee-MuseumBremen42943Google Scholar
  9. Bertolani, R. 1971Partenogenesi geografica triploide in un Tardigrado (Macrobiotus richtersi)Atti dell’Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rendiconti50487489Serie 8aGoogle Scholar
  10. Bertolani, R. 2001Evolution of the reproductive mechanisms in tardigradesA review. Zoologischer Anzeiger240247252Google Scholar
  11. Bertolani, R., Buonagurelli, G. P. 1975Osservazioni cariologiche sulla partenogenesi meiotica di Macrobiotus  dispar (Tardigrada)Atti dell’Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rendiconti8782786Serie 8aGoogle Scholar
  12. Crowe, J. H., Newell, I. M., Thomson, W. W. 1971Cuticle formation in the tardigrade, Macrobiotus  areolatus MurrayJournal of Microscopy11121132Google Scholar
  13. Cywinska, A., Hebert, P. D. N. 2002Origins of clonal diversity in the hypervariable asexual ostracod Cypridopsis  viduaJournal of Evolutionary Biology15134145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dougherty, E. C. 1964Cultivation and nutrition of micrometazoa. II. An Antarctic strain of the tardigrade Hypsibius arcticus (Murray, 1907) Marcus, 1928Transactions of the American Microscopical Society83711Google Scholar
  15. Eibye-Jacobsen, J. 1996/97New observations on the embryology of the TardigradaZoologischer Anzeiger235201216Google Scholar
  16. Gómez, A., Carvalho, G. R. 2000Sex, parthenogenesis and genetic structure of rotifers: microsatellite analysis of contemporary and resting egg bank populationsMolecular Ecology9203214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hebert, P. D. N., 1987. Genetics of Daphnia. In Peters, N. H., R. de Bernardi (eds), Daphnia. Memorie dell’Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia 45: 439–460Google Scholar
  18. Kristensen, R. M. 1982The first record of cyclomorphosis in Tardigrada based on a new genus and species from Arctic meiobenthosZeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung20249270Google Scholar
  19. Marcus, E., 1929. Tardigrada. In Bronns, H. G. (ed.), Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Akademische Verlagsgesellschft, Leipzig 5: 1–608Google Scholar
  20. Marcus, N. H. 1996Ecological and evolutionary significance of resting eggs in marine copepods: past, present, and future studiesHydrobiologia320141152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marzluff, J. M., Dial, K. P. 1991Life history correlates of taxonomic diversityEcology72428439Google Scholar
  22. McHugh, D., Fong, P. P. 2002Do life history traits account for diversity of polychaete annelids?Invertebrate Biology121325338Google Scholar
  23. Rebecchi, L., Altiero, T., Bertolani, R. 2002Banding techniques on tardigrade chromosomes: the karyotype of Macrobiotus  richtersi (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae)Chromosome Research10437443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rebecchi, L., Bertolani, R. 1994Maturative pattern of ovary and testis in eutardigrades of freshwater and terrestrial habitatsInvertebrate Reproduction and Development26107118Google Scholar
  25. Rebecchi, L., Guidi, A., Bertolani, R. 2000Maturative pattern of the ovotestis in two hermaphrodite species of eutardigradesInvertebrate Reproduction and Development372534Google Scholar
  26. Rossi, V., Schoen, I., Butlin, R. K., Menozzi, P. 1998Clonal genetic diversityMartens, K. eds. Sex and Parthenogenesis: Evolutionary Ecology of Reproductive Modes in Non-marine OstracodsBakhuys PublishersLeiden, The Netherlands257274Google Scholar
  27. Sakwińska, O. 2002Response to fish kairomone in Daphnia galeata life history traits relies on shift to earlier instar at maturationOecologia131409417Google Scholar
  28. Simovich, M. A., Hathaway, S. A. 1997Diversified bet-hedging as a reproductive strategy of some ephemeral pool anostracans (Branchiopoda)Journal of Crustacean Biology173844Google Scholar
  29. Sokal, R. R., Rohlf, F. J. 1995Biometry. The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological ResearchW. H. Freeman & CoNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Suzuki, A. C. 2003Life history of Milnesium  tardigradum Doyère (Tardigrada) under a rearing environmentZoological Science204957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Weglarska, B. 1957On the encystation in Tardigrada. Part firstZoologica Poloniae8315325Google Scholar
  32. Wenck, W. 1914Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an Tardigraden (Macrobiotus  lacustris Duj.)Zoologischen Jahrbüchern, Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere37465513Google Scholar
  33. White, J. M. D. 1973Animal Cytology and EvolutionCambridge University PressLondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiziana Altiero
    • 1
  • Lorena Rebecchi
    • 1
  • Roberto Bertolani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal BiologyUniversity of Modena and Reggio EmiliaModenaItaly

Personalised recommendations