Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 563, Issue 1, pp 31–44 | Cite as

The Shrimp Caridina nilotica in Lake Victoria (East Africa), Before and After the Nile Perch Increase

  • Kees (P.C.) Goudswaard
  • Frans Witte
  • Jan H. Wanink
Primary Research Paper

Abstract

The shrimp Caridina nilotica is a major prey of the introduced Nile perch in Lake Victoria. In spite of heavy predation, the density of shrimps increased after the Nile perch boom and the concomitant disappearance of the haplochromine cichlids. In the same period, the mean size of gravid shrimps and the size at first maturity declined. This seems to indicate an increased predation pressure on adult shrimps. Before the Nile perch upsurge, specialised shrimp eaters and piscivores, among the haplochromine cichlids, only took adult shrimps, whereas we assume that most haplochromines used to include juvenile shrimps into their diet. Another important predator on adult shrimps was Bagrus docmak. The combined density of predators on adult shrimps in the pre-Nile perch era was estimated at 10 kg ha−1 and the potential predators on juveniles were estimated at 170 kg ha−1. After the Nile perch upsurge, only Nile perch up to 10 cm TL and Rastrineobola argentea fed on juvenile shrimps (ca. 36 kg ha−1) and Nile perch from 10 to 50 cm TL (ca. 13 kg ha−1) fed on adults. These rough estimates of the biomass of predators on shrimps before and after the Nile perch upsurge indicate a reduced predation pressure on juvenile shrimps. The disappearance of the haplochromines may have released competition with small Nile perch for juvenile shrimps, thus enhancing the recruitment of Nile perch.

Keywords

shrimp population increase size reduction life history parameters predation shift Lates niloticus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Budeba, Y. L., 2003. The role of Nile shrimp, Caridina nilotica, in the food web of Nile perch, Lates niloticus, in Lake Victoria. Thesis, University of HullGoogle Scholar
  2. Branstrator D. K. and Mwebaza-Ndawula L. (1998). Low-oxygen tolerance of the atyid prawn, Caridina nilotica, in Lake Victoria (East Africa): implications for refuge from Nile perch predation. In: Lehman, J. T. (eds) Environmental Change and Response in East African Lakes, pp 125–133. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  3. Chilvers R. M. and Gee J. M. (1974). The food of Bagrus docmak (Forsskåll.) (Pisces: Siluriformes) and its relationship with Haplochromis Hilgendorf (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Lake Victoria, East Africa. Journal of Fish Biology 6: 493–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Corbet P. S. (1961). The food of the non-cichlid fishes in the Lake Victoria basin, with remarks on their evolution and adaptation to lacustrine conditions. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 136: 1–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Coulter G. W. (1991). Lake Tanganyika and its Life. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Fryer G. (1960). The feeding mechanism of some atyid prawns of the genus Caridina. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 64: 217–244Google Scholar
  7. Goldschmidt T. and Witte F. (1990). Ecological segregation in zooplanktivorous haplochromine species (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Victoria. Oikos 58: 343–355Google Scholar
  8. Goldschmidt T., Witte F. and Wanink J. H. (1993). Cascading effects of the introduced Nile perch on the detritivorous/phytoplanktivorous species in the sublittoral areas of Lake Victoria. Conservation Biology 7: 686–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gophen M., Ochumba P. O. B. and Kaufman L. S. (1995). Some aspects of perturbation in the structure and biodiversity of the ecosystem of Lake Victoria (East Africa). Aquatic Living Resources 8: 27–41Google Scholar
  10. Goudswaard, P. C. & F. Witte, 1985. Observations on Nile perch – Lates niloticus (L.) 1758 – in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria. FAO Fisheries Report 335: 62–67Google Scholar
  11. Goudswaard P. C., Mous P. J. and Ligtvoet W. (1995). Gears and boats. In: Witte, F. (eds) Fish Stocks and Fisheries of Lake Victoria, pp 83–117. Samara Publishing Ltd, CardiganGoogle Scholar
  12. Goudswaard P. C. and Witte F. (1997). The catfish fauna of Lake Victoria after the Nile perch upsurge. Environmental Biology of Fishes 49: 21–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graham M. (1929). The Victoria Nyanza and its Fisheries. A Report on the Fishing Survey of Lake Victoria 1927–1928. Fisheries Laboratory, LowestoftGoogle Scholar
  14. Greenwood, P. H., 1974. The cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria, East Africa: the biology and evolution of a species flock. Bulletin British Museum of Natural History (Zoology) Supplement. 6, pp 134Google Scholar
  15. Greenwood P. H. (1981). The Haplochromine Fishes of the East African Lakes: collected Papers on their Taxonomy, Biology and Evolution with an Introduction and Species Index. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 839Google Scholar
  16. Greenwood P. H. and Barel C. D. N. (1978). A revision of the Lake Victoria Haplochromis species (Pisces, Cichlidae), Part VIII. Bulletin British Museum of Natural History (Zoology) 33: 141–192Google Scholar
  17. Hart R. C. (1980a). Oxygen consumption in Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae) in relation to temperature and size. Freshwater Biology 10: 215–222Google Scholar
  18. Hart R. C. (1980b). Embryonic duration and post-embryonic growth rates of the tropical freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae) under laboratory and experimental field conditions. Freshwater Biology 10: 297–315Google Scholar
  19. Hart R. C. (1981). Population dynamics and production of the tropical freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae) in the littoral of Lake Sibaya. Freshwater Biology 11: 531–547Google Scholar
  20. Hecky R. E. (1993). The eutrophication of Lake Victoria. Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie. Verhandlungen 25: 39–48Google Scholar
  21. Holthuis L. B. (1951). The Caridean Crustacea of Tropical West Africa. Danish Science Press Ltd, Copenhagen, 1–184Google Scholar
  22. Hollander M. and Wolfe D. (1973). Nonparametric Statistical Methods. Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoogerhoud R. J. C., Witte F. and Barel C. D. N. (1983). The ecological differentiation of two closely resembling Haplochromis species from Lake Victoria (H. iris and H. hiatus; Pisces, Cichlidae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 33: 283–305Google Scholar
  24. Hoogerhoud, R. J. C., 1986. Ecological morphology of some cichlid fishes. Thesis, University of LeidenGoogle Scholar
  25. Hughes N. F. (1986). Changes in the feeding biology of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.) (Pisces: Centropomidae), in Lake Victoria, East Africa since its introduction in 1960 and its impact on native fish community of the Nyanza Gulf. Journal of Fish Biology 29: 541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hughes N. F. (1992). Nile perch, Lates niloticus, predation on the freshwater prawn, Caridina nilotica, in the Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, East Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 33: 307–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hussein M. A. and Obuid-allah A. H. (1992). Redescription of the freshwater prawn Caridina nilotica (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) collected from Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian German Society of Zoology 9: 203–222Google Scholar
  28. Kaufman L. (1992). Catastrophic change in species-rich freshwater ecosystems. The lessons of Lake Victoria. BioScience 42: 846–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kaufman L. and Ochumba P. (1993). Evolutionary and conservation biology of cichlid fishes as revealed by fauna remnants in Northern Lake Victoria. Conservation Biology 7: 719–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ligtvoet, W. & O. C. Mkumbo, 1990. Synopsis of ecological and fishery research on Nile perch (Lates niloticus) in Lake Victoria, conducted by HEST/TAFIRI. FAO Fisheries Report 430: 35–74Google Scholar
  31. Mbahinzireki G. B., Lehman J. T. and Ochieng H. (1998). Caridina nilotica: spatial distribution and egg production in Lake Victoria, Uganda. In: Lehman, J. T. (eds) Environmental Change and Response in East African Lakes, pp 117–124. Kluwer, Dordrecht Google Scholar
  32. Mkumbo O. C. and Ligtvoet W. (1992). Changes in the diet of Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L), in the Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria. Hydrobiologia 232: 79–84Google Scholar
  33. Mous P. J., Goudswaard P. C., Katunzi E. F. B., Budeba Y. L., Witte F. and Ligtvoet W. (1995). Sampling and measuring. In: Witte, F. (eds) Fish Stocks and Fisheries of Lake Victoria, pp. Samara Publishing Ltd, Cardigan, 55–82Google Scholar
  34. Mugidde R. (1993). The increase in phytoplankton primary productivity and biomass in lake Victoria (Uganda). Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie. Verhandlungen Limnologie 25: 846–849Google Scholar
  35. Mwebaza-Ndawula L. (1984). Food and feeding habits of Clarias mossambicus from four areas in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 10: 69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Noakes D. L. G. and Balon E. K. (1982). Life histories of tilapias: an evolutionary perspective. In: Pullin, R. S. V. and Lowe-McConnell, R. H. (eds) The Biology and Culture of Tilapias, pp 61–82. ICLARM, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  37. Ochumba P. B. O. and Kibaara D. I. (1989). Observations on blue-green algal blooms in the open waters of Lake Victoria, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 27: 23–34Google Scholar
  38. Ogari J. and Dadzie S. (1988). The food of Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.) after the disappearance of the haplochromine cichlids in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. Journal of Fish Biology 32: 571–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ogutu-Ohwayo R. (1990a). The decline of the native fishes of lakes Victoria and Kyoga (East Africa) and the impact of introduced species, especially the Nile perch, Lates niloticus and the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Environmental Biology of Fishes 27: 81–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ogutu-Ohwayo R. (1990b). Changes in the prey ingested and the variations in the Nile perch and other fish stocks of Lake Kyoga and the northern waters of Lake Victoria (Uganda). Journal of Fish Biology 37: 55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Okach J. O. and Dadzie S. (1988). The food, feeding habits and distribution of a siluroid catfish, Bagrus docmak (Forsskåll), in the Kenyan waters of Lake Victoria. Journal of Fish Biology 32: 85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roff D. A. (1992). The Evolution of Life Histories; Theory and Analysis. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Sætveit, T., 2003. Reproduction in the Shrimp Caridina nilotica Roux (Decapoda: Atyidae) in Murchinson Bay, Lake Victoria, Uganda – in Comparison with Earlier Studies in Lake Victoria and Lake Sibaya, South Africa. Thesis, University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  44. Sahrhage D. (1989). Antarctic krill fisheries: potential resources and ecological concerns. In: Caddy, J. F. (eds) Marine Invertebrate Fisheries: Their Assessment and Management, pp 13–33. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Stearns S. C. (1992). The Evolution of Life History. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  46. (1982). Ecological differentiation among the piscivorous haplochromiune cichlids of Lake Victoria (East Africa). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 32: 336–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Van Oijen, M. J. P., 1989. Notes on the relationship between prey size and pharyngeal jaw size in piscivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria. Annales, Sciences Zoologiques, Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale 257: 73–76Google Scholar
  48. (1991). A systematic revision of the piscivorous haplochromine Cichlidae (Pisces: Teleostei) of Lake Victoria (East Africa). Part I. Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 272: 1–95Google Scholar
  49. Verschuren D., Johnston T. C., Kling H. J., Edgington D. N., Leavitt P. R., Brown E. T., Talbot M. R. and Hecky R. E. (2002). History and timing of human impact on Lake Victoria, East Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269: 289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wanink, J. H., 1998. The pelagic cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea as a crucial link in the disrupted ecosystem of Lake Victoria. Thesis, University of LeidenGoogle Scholar
  51. Wanink J. H. and Goudswaard P. C. (1994). Effects of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) introduction into Lake Victoria, East Africa, on the diet of pied kingfishers (Ceryle rudis). Hydrobiologia 279/280: 367–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wanink J. H., Kashindye J. J., Goudswaard P. C. and Witte F. (2001). Dwelling at the oxycline: does increased stratification provide a predation refugium for the Lake Victoria sardine Rastrineobola argentea?. Freshwater Biology 46: 75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wanink J. H., Katunzi E. F. B., Goudswaard P. C. and Witte F. (2002). The shift to smaller zooplankton in Lake Victoria cannot be attributed to the ‘sardine’ Rastrineobola argentea (Cyprinidae). Aquatic Living Resources 15: 37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wanink, J. H., F. Witte, P. C. Goudswaard, E. F. B. Katunzi & M. R. Berger (in press). Changes in biomass and predation pressure of zooplanktivorous fish in the sublittoral waters of the Mwanza Gulf. In Proceedings Lake Victoria 2000: A New Beginning. LVFO, Jinja, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  55. Witte F. (1990). Taxonomy, ecology and fishery of Lake Victoria haplochromine trophic groups. Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 262: 1–47Google Scholar
  56. Witte F., Goldschmidt T. and Wanink J. H. (1995). Dynamics of the haplochromine cichlid fauna and other ecological changes in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. In: Pitcher, T. J. and Hart, P. J. B. (eds) The Impact of Species Changes in African Lakes, pp 83–110. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  57. Witte F., Wanink J. H. and Rutjes H. A. (2005). Eutrophication and its influences on the fish fauna of Lake Victoria. In: Reddy, M. V. (eds) Restoration and Management of Tropical Eutrophic Lakes, pp 301–338. Science Publishers, Inc., Enfield (NH), USAGoogle Scholar
  58. Witte F., Goldschmidt T., Goudswaard P. C., Ligtvoet W. and Wanink J. H. (1992a). Species extinction and concomitant ecological changes in Lake Victoria. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 42: 214–232Google Scholar
  59. Witte F., Goldschmidt T., Wanink J., Witte-Maas E. and Bouton N. (1992b). The destruction of an endemic species flock: quantitative data on the decline of the haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria. Environmental Biology of Fishes 34: 1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kees (P.C.) Goudswaard
    • 1
  • Frans Witte
    • 1
  • Jan H. Wanink
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Biology LeidenUniversity of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Koeman en Bijkerk BVEcological Research and ConsultancyHarenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations