The predation impact of juvenile herring Clupea harengusand sprat Sprattus sprattus on estuarine zooplankton Abstract
The consumption of estuarine copepods by juvenile herring and sprat during estuarine residency was estimated using fish biomass data and daily rations calculated from two models of feeding in fish: a bioenergetic model and a gastric evacuation model. The bioenergetic model predicted daily rations that were, on average, three times higher than those estimated by a model based on field records of stomach contents. The biomass of herring and sprat in the estuary was negatively correlated with the daily ration suggesting that the clupeid fish populations were resource-limited. Copepod production decreased towards the winter and peaked in spring and summer. The relative importance of predation changed seasonally in function of the migration pattern of herring and sprat. In the spring and the summer,
in situ production of␣copepod biomass was higher than the in situ consumption by fish. During the fall and the winter, consumption exceeded production. This suggests that top–down control exerted by marine pelagic fish may be an important force structuring estuarine copepod populations. Keywords top–down control predation consumption production herring sprat calanoid copepods estuary Eurytemora affinis Acartia tonsa References Arrhenius, F. 1998 Variable length of daily feeding period in bioenergetics modelling: a test with 0-group Baltic herring Journal of Fish Biology 52 855 860 CrossRef Google Scholar Arrhenius, F., Hansson, S. 1993 Food consumption of larval, young and adult herring and sprat in the Baltic Sea Marine Ecology Progress Series 96 125 137 Google Scholar Arrhenius, F., Hansson, S. 1994a In situ food consumption by young-of-the-year Baltic Sea herring Clupea harengus: a test of predictions from a bioenergetics model Marine Ecology Progress Series 110 145 149 Google Scholar Arrhenius, F., Hansson, S. 1994 Erratum Marine Ecology Progress Series 114 314 Google Scholar Boisclair, D., Marchand, F. 1993 The guts to estimate fish daily ration Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50 1969 1975 Google Scholar Carpenter, S. R., Kitchell, J. F. 1993The Trophic Cascade in Lakes Cambridge University Press New York 385 Google Scholar Clarke, A., Johnston, N. 1999 Scaling of metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in teleost fish Journal of Animal Ecology 68 893 905 CrossRef Google Scholar Cury, P., Bakun, A., Crawford, R. J. M., Jarre, A., Quinones, R. A., Shannon, L. J., Verheye, H. M. 2000 Small pelagics in upwelling systems: patterns of interaction and structural changes in “wasp-waist” ecosystems ICES Journal of Marine Science 57 603 618 CrossRef Google Scholar Silva, S. S., Balbontin, F. 1974 Laboratory studies on food intake, growth and food conversion of young herring, Clupea harengus (L.) Journal of Fish Biology 6 645 648 Google Scholar Elliott, M., O’Reilly, M. G., Taylor, C. J. L. 1990 The Forth estuary: a nursery and overwintering area for North Sea fishes Hydrobiologia 195 89 103 CrossRef Google Scholar Escaravage, V., Soetaert, K. 1995 Secondary production of the brackish copepod community and their contribution to the carbon fluxes in the Westerschelde estuary (The Netherlands) Hydrobiologia 311 103 114 Google Scholar
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