, Volume 535, Issue 1, pp 227–251

Pogonophora (Annelida): form and function

  • Eve C. Southward
  • Anja Schulze
  • Stephen L. Gardiner

DOI: 10.1007/s10750-004-4401-6

Cite this article as:
Southward, E.C., Schulze, A. & Gardiner, S.L. Hydrobiologia (2005) 535: 227. doi:10.1007/s10750-004-4401-6


Pogonophora, also known as Siboglinidae, are tube-dwelling marine annelids. They rely on endosymbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria for nutrition and their anatomy and physiology are adapted to their need to obtain both oxygen and reduced sulphur compounds. Frenulate pogonophores are generally long and slender, sediment-living tubeworms; vestimentiferans are stouter, inhabitants of hydrothermal vents and cool seeps; and moniliferans or sclerolinids are very slender inhabitants of decaying wood and sulphidic sediments. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the three groups are compared and recent publications are reviewed. Annelid characters are the presence of chaetae and septa, concentrated at the hind end. The adaptations to a specialised way of life include, in particular, the chitinous tube; the anterior appendages that function as gills; the internal tissue called the trophosome, where the endosymbiotic bacteria live; and the blood vascular system that transports oxygen, sulphide and carbon dioxide to the trophosome.


Pogonophora  Siboglinidae Frenulata Vestimentifera anatomy ultrastructure 

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eve C. Southward
    • 1
  • Anja Schulze
    • 2
  • Stephen L. Gardiner
    • 3
  1. 1.Marine Biological Association of the U.K.PlymouthU.K
  2. 2.Smithsonian Marine StationFort PierceU.S.A
  3. 3.Department of BiologyBryn Mawr CollegeU.S.A

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