, Volume 530, Issue 1–3, pp 283–290

Evolution and dynamics of branching colonial form in marine modular cnidarians: gorgonian octocorals



Multi-branched arborescent networks are common patterns for many sessile marine modular organisms but no clear understanding of their development is yet available. This paper reviews new findings in the theoretical and comparative biology of branching modular organisms (e.g. Octocorallia Cnidaria) and new hypotheses on the evolution of form are discussed. A particular characteristic of branching Caribbean gorgonian octocorals is a morphologic integration at two levels of colonial organization based on whether the traits are at the module or colony level. This revealed an emergent level of integration and modularity produced by the branching process itself and not entirely by the module replication. In essence, not just a few changes at the module level could generate changes in colony architecture, suggesting uncoupled developmental patterning for the polyp and branch level traits. Therefore, the evolution of colony form in octocorals seems to be related to the changes affecting the process of branching. Branching in these organisms is sub-apical, coming from mother branches, and the highly self-organized form is the product of a dynamic process maintaining a constant ratio between mother and daughter branches. Colony growth preserves shape but is a logistic growth-like event due to branch interference and/or allometry. The qualitative branching patterns in octocorals (e.g. sea feathers, fans, sausages, and candelabra) occurred multiple times when compared with recent molecular phylogenies, suggesting independence of common ancestry to achieve these forms. A number of species with different colony forms, particularly alternate species (e.g. sea candelabrum), shared the same value for an important branching parameter (the ratio of mother to total branches). According to the way gorgonians branch and achieve form, it is hypothesized that the diversity of alternate species sharing the same narrow variance in that critical parameter for growth might be the product of canalization (or a developmental constraint), where uniform change in growth rates and maximum colony size might explain colony differences among species. If the parameter preserving shape in the colonies is fixed but colonies differ in their growth rates and maximum sizes, heterochrony could be responsible for the evolution among some gorgonian corals with alternate branching.


colonial organisms heterochrony Cnidaria 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Systematic Biology and Laboratories of Analytical BiologyNational Museum of Natural History (MRC-163), Smithsonian InstitutionWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Departamento de Ciencias BiológicasUniversidad de los AndesBogotáColombia

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