Hydrobiologia

, Volume 535, Issue 1, pp 199–225

Pharynx and intestine

Article

Abstract

The alimentary canal of polychaetes consists of a foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The alimentary canal shows different specializations even in homonomously segmented polychaetes. The foregut gives rise to the buccal cavity, pharnyx and oesophagus, the midgut may be divided into a stomach and the intestine proper. Since polychaetes use a wide spectrum of food sources, structures involved in feeding vary as well and show numerous specializations. In the foregut these specializations may be classified as one of the following types: dorsolateral folds, ventral pharynx, axial muscular pharynx, axial non-muscular proboscis and dorsal pharynx. The latter, typical of oligochaetous Clitellata, occurs rarely in polychaetes. The structure, evolution and phylogenetic importance of these different types are described and discussed. Axial muscular and ventral pharynges may be armed with jaws, sclerotized parts of the pharyngeal cuticle. Terminology, structure, occurrence and development of the jaws are briefly reviewed. Special attention has been paid to the jaws of Eunicida including extinct and extant forms. Conflicting theories about the evolution of the jaws in Eunicida are discussed. The epithelia of the intestine may form a pseudostratified epithelium composed of glandular cells, absorptive cells and ciliated cells or only one cell type having similar functions. A conspicuous feature in the intestine of certain polychaetes is the occurrence of unicellular tubular structures, called enteronephridia. So far these enteronephridia are only known in a few meiofauna species.

Keywords

pharynx axial pharynx ventral pharynx dorsolateral folds dorsal pharynx intestine enteronephridia jaws 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Åkesson, B. 1967On the biology and larval morphology of Ophryotrocha puerilis Claparède & Metschnikov (Polychaeta)Ophelia4111119Google Scholar
  2. Åkesson, B. 1973aMorphology and life history of Ophryotrocha maculata sp.n. (Polychaeta, Dorvilleidae)Zoologica Scripta2141144Google Scholar
  3. Åkesson, B. 1973bReproduction and larval morphology of five Ophryotrocha species (Polychaeta, Dorvilleidae)Zoologica Scripta2145155Google Scholar
  4. Åkesson, B. 1976Morphology and life cycle of Ophryotrocha diadema, a new polychaete species from CaliforniaOphelia152335Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, D. T. 1959The embryology of the polychaete Scoloplos armigerQuarterly Journal of microscopical Science10089166Google Scholar
  6. Ax, P. 1999Das System der Metazoa IIFischerStuttgart383Google Scholar
  7. Bantz, M., Michel, C. 1971Revètement cuticulaire de la trompe chez Glycera convoluta Keferstein (Annélide Polychète)Zeitschrift für Zellforschung118221242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bantz, M., Michel, C. 1972Les cellules sensorielles des papilles de la trompe chez Glycera convoluta Keferstein (Annélide Polychète). Anatomie microscopique et ultrastructureZeitschrift für Zellforschung134351366Google Scholar
  9. Böggemann, M. 2002Revision of the Glyceridae Grube 1850 (Annelida: Polychaeta)Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft5551249Google Scholar
  10. Böggemann, M., Fiege, D., Purschke, G. 2000Ultrastructure of the proboscidial papillae in some Glycera species (Annelida: Polychaeta: Glyceridae)Cahiers de Biologie Marine41143153Google Scholar
  11. Briggs, R. T., Chaffee, J. E., Anderson, M. 1985Calcium containing granules in myoepithelial cells of the polychaete Syllis spongiphila: possible tonic modulatorsTissue and Cell17923928CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Britaev, T. A., Belov, V. 1993Determination of the age of polychaetes fam. Polynoidae by the jaws growth-linesZoologicheskii Zhurnal721521(in Russian)Google Scholar
  13. Britaev, T. A., Pluscheva, M., Buyanovski, A. 2002Size-age structure of populations of Lepidonotus squamatus and Harmothoe imbricata (Polychaeta, Polynoidae) in the White SeaZoologicheskii Zhurnal81285291(in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. Bryan, G. W., Gibbs, P. E. 1979Zinc – a major inorganic component of nereid polychaete jawsJournal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom59969973Google Scholar
  15. Bryan, G. W., Gibbs, P. E. 1980Metals in nereid polychaetes: the contribution of metals in the jaws to the total body burdenJournal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom60641654Google Scholar
  16. Bryan, G. W., Gibbs, P. E. 1986Occurrence, composition and function of intracellular calcium phosphate granules in the musculature of nephtyid polychaetes (Annelida)Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom66343365Google Scholar
  17. Colbath, G. K. 1986Jaw mineralogy in eunicean polychaetes (Annelida)Micropaleontology32186189Google Scholar
  18. Colbath, G. K. 1987Evidence for shedding of maxillary jaws in eunicoid polychaetesJournal of Natural History21443447Google Scholar
  19. Colbath, G. K. 1988Taphonomy of recent polychaete jaws from Florida and BelizeMicropaleontology348389Google Scholar
  20. Croneis, C., Scott, H. W. 1933ScolecodontsBulletin of the Geological Society of America44207Google Scholar
  21. Dales, R. P. 1957The feeding mechanism and structure of the gut of Owenia fusiformis D.ChJournal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom368189Google Scholar
  22. Dales, R. P. 1962The polychaete stomodeum and the inter-relationship of the families of PolychaetaProceedings of the Zoological Society of London139389428Google Scholar
  23. Dales, R. P. 1963AnnelidsHutchison University LibraryLondon200Google Scholar
  24. Dales, R. P., 1977. The Polychaete stomodeum and phylogeny. In Reish, D. J. & K. Fauchald (eds), Essays on Polychaetous Annelids in Memory of Dr. Olga Hartman. Allan Hancock Foundation, Los Angeles: 525–546Google Scholar
  25. Damas, D. 1987Étude cytologique, histochimique et microanalytique des pieces maxillaires d’Ophryotrocha puerilis (Annélide, Polychète, Eunicidae)Bulletin of the Zoological Society of France1116173Google Scholar
  26. Del Castello, J., Anderson, M., Smith, D.S. 1972Proventriculus of a marine annelid: muscle preparation with the longest recorded sarcomereProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America6916691672Google Scholar
  27. Desbruyères, D. 1978Un Ampharetidae (Annélides Polychètes sédentaires) à structure buccale aberrante: Gnathampharete paradoxa gen., sp. nComptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences Paris, D286281284Google Scholar
  28. Düsing, H. 1961Die Umwandlung des Kauapparates in Abhängigkeit vom sexuellen Zustand bei Ophryotrocha puerilis Claparde et MetschnikoffNaturwissenschaften3532533Google Scholar
  29. Eeckhaut, I. & D. Lanterbec, 2005. Myzostomida. A review of the phylogeny and ultrastructure. Hydrobiologia 535/536 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 179): 251–273Google Scholar
  30. Ehlers, E. 1864–1868. Die Borstenwürmer nach systematischen und anatomischen Untersuchungen dargestellt. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig: 1–748Google Scholar
  31. Ehlers, E. 1868Über eine fossile Eunice aus Solnhofen (Eunicites avitus) nebst Bemerkungen über fossile Würmer überhauptZeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie18421443Google Scholar
  32. Eisig, H. 1914Zur Systematik, Anatomie und Morphologie der Ariciiden nebst Beiträgen zur generellen SystematikMitteilungen aus der zoologischen Station zu Neapel21153593Google Scholar
  33. Eibye-Jacobsen, D., Kristensen, R. M. 1994A new species and genus of Dorvilleidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from Bermuda, with a phylogenetic analysis of Dorvilleidae, Iphitimidae and DinophilidaeZoologica Scripta23107131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fauchald, K., Jumars, P. A. 1979The diet of worms: a study of polychaete feeding guildsOceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review17193284Google Scholar
  35. Fauvel, P. 1959

    Classe des Annélides Polychètes

    Grassé, P.-P. eds. Traité de Zoologie, Vol. 5MassonParis13196
    Google Scholar
  36. Gelder, S.R., Uglow, R.F. 1973Feeding and gut structure in Nerilla antennata (Annelida: Archiannelida)Journal of Zoology171225237Google Scholar
  37. Gibbs, P.E., Bryan, G.W. 1980aCopper – the major metal component of glycerid polychaete jawsJournal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom60205214Google Scholar
  38. Gibbs, P.E., Bryan, G.W. 1980bA note on the element composition of the jaws of Goniada maculata (Polychaeta: Goniadidae)Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom60541542Google Scholar
  39. Hartman, O. 1944Polychaetous annelids. Part V. EuniceaAllan Hancock Pacific Expeditions101238Google Scholar
  40. Hartmann-Schröder, G. 1958Zur Morphologie der Opheliiden (Polychaeta sedentaria)Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie16184143Google Scholar
  41. Hartmann-Schröder, G. 1967Feinbau und Funktion des Kieferapparates der Euniciden am Beispiel von Eunice (Palola) siciliensis Grube (Polychaeta)Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut64527Google Scholar
  42. Heffernan, P. 1988Ultrastructural and histochemical studies of the digestive system of Pholoë minuta (Polychaeta: Sigalionidae)Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom68447464Google Scholar
  43. Heimler, W. 1983Untersuchungen zur Larvalentwicklung von Lanice conchilega (Pallas) 1766 (Polychaeta/Terebellomorpha) Teil III. Bau und Struktur der Aulophora-LarveZoologische Jahrbücher. Anatomie110411478Google Scholar
  44. Hilbig, B., Blake, J. A. 1991Dorvilleidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the U.S. Atlantic slope and rise. Description of two new genera and 14 new species, with a genric revision of OphryotrochaZoologica Scripta20147183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hsieh, H.-L., Simon, J. L. 1987Larval development of Kinbergonuphis simoni, with a summary of development patterns in the family Onuphidae (Polychaeta)Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington7194210Google Scholar
  46. Jamieson, B.G.M. 1992

    Oligochaeta

    Harrison, F.W.Gardiner, S.L. eds. Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Vol. 7 AnnelidaWiley-LissNew York217322
    Google Scholar
  47. Jennings, J. B., Gelder, S. R. 1969Feeding and digestion in Dinophilus gyrociliatus (Annelida, Archiannelida)Journal of Zoology158441457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jennings, J. B., Gelder, S. R. 1976Observations on the feeding mechanism, diet and digestive physiology of Histriobdella homari van Veneden 1958: an aberrant polychaete symbiotic with North American and European lobstersBiological Bulletin151489517Google Scholar
  49. Jeuniaux, C. 1969

    Nutrition and Digestion

    Florkin, M.Scheer, B. T. eds. Chemical Zoology. Vol. 4Academic PressLondon6991
    Google Scholar
  50. Jouin, C. 1967Étude morphologique et anatomique de Nerillidopsis hyalina Jouin et de quelques Nerillidium Remane (Archiannélides Nerillidae)Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Genérale10897110Google Scholar
  51. Jouin, C. 1968Sexualité et biologie de la reproduction chez Mesonerilla Remane and Meganerilla Boaden (Archiannélides Nerillidae)Cahiers de Biologie Marine93152Google Scholar
  52. Jouin, C. 1978aAnatomical and ultrastructural study of the pharyngeal bulb in Protodrilus (Polychaeta, Archiannelida). I. Muscles and myo-epithelial junctionsTissue and Cell10269287Google Scholar
  53. Jouin, C. 1978bAnatomical and ultrastructural study of the pharyngeal bulb in Protodrilus (Polychaeta, Archiannelida). II. The stomodeal epithelium and its cuticleTissue and Cell10289301Google Scholar
  54. Jouin, C. 1979Description of a free-living polychaete without gut: Astomus taenioides n.gen., n. sp. (Protodrilidae, Archiannelida)Canadian Journal of Zoology5724482456Google Scholar
  55. Jouin, C. 1992The ultrastructure of a gutless annelid, Parenterodrilus gen. nov. taenioides (=Astomus taenioides) (Polychaeta, Protodrilidae)Canadian Journal of Zoology7018331848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jumars, P. 1974A generic revision of the Dorvilleidae (Polychaeta), with six new species from the deep North PacificZoological Journal of the Linnean Society of London54101135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kielan-Jaworowska, S. 1966Polychaete jaw apparatuses from the Ordovician and Silurian of Poland and a comparison with modern formsActa Palaeontologica Polonica161125Google Scholar
  58. Kirkegaard, J. B. 1970Age determination of Nephtys (Polychaeta: Nephtydae)Ophelia7447496Google Scholar
  59. Kozlowski, R. 1956Sur quelques appareils masticateurs des Annélides Polychètes OrdoviciensActa Paleontologica Polonica1316Google Scholar
  60. Kozur, H. 1970Zur Klassifikation und phylogenetischen Entwicklung der fossilen Phyllodocida und Eunicida (Polychaeta)Freiburger Forschungsheft C2603581Google Scholar
  61. Kristensen, R. M., Niilonen, T. 1982Structural studies on Diurodrilus Remane (Diurodrilidae fam. n.), with description of Diurodrilus westheidei sp.n. from the arctic interstitial meiobenthos, W. GreenlandZoologica Scripta11112Google Scholar
  62. Lanzaveccchia, G., M. de Eguileor & R. Valvassori, 1988. Muscles. In Westheide, W. & C. O. Hermans (eds), The Ultrastructure of Polychaeta. Microfauna Marina 4: 71–88Google Scholar
  63. Licher, F. 1999Revision der Gattung Typosyllis Langerhans, 1879 (Polychaeta: Syllidae). Morphologie, Taxonomie und PhylogenieAbhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft5511336Google Scholar
  64. Mackie, A. S. Y., 1994. Adercodon pleijeli gen. et.sp. nov. (Polychaeta, Ampharetidae) from the Mediterranean Sea. In Dauvin, J. C., L. Laubier & D. Reish (eds), Actes de la 4ème Conferénce internationale des Polychètes. Mémoires du Muséum National d’histoire Naturelle 162: 243–250Google Scholar
  65. Martin, P. 2001On the origin of the Hirudinea and the demise of the OligochaetaProceedings of the Royal Society of London B26810891098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Michel, C. 1972Étude ultrastructurale et histochimique des papilles de la gaine de la trompe de Notomastus latericus Sars (Annélide Polychète Sédentaire)Zeitschrift für Zellforschung128428503Google Scholar
  67. Michel, C. 1978Étude histologique, histochimique et cytologique du stomodeum chez le Polychète Sédentaire, Audouinia tentaculata (Montagu)Cahiers de Biologie Marine19433446Google Scholar
  68. Michel, C., 1988. Intestine. In Westheide, W., & C. O. Hermans (eds), The Ultrastructure of the Polychaeta. Microfauna Marina 4: 157–175Google Scholar
  69. Michel, C., DeVillez, E. J. 1978

    Digestion

    Mill, P. J. eds. Physiology of AnnelidsAcademic PressLondon509554
    Google Scholar
  70. Michel, C., Fonze-Vignaux, M.-T., Voss-Foucart, M.-F. 1973Données nouvelles sur la morphologie, l’histochimie et la composition chimique des mâchoires de Glycera convoluta Keferstein (Annélide, Polychète)Bulletin biologique de France et de la Belgique107301321Google Scholar
  71. Mierzejewski, P. 1978Molting of the jaws of the early Paleozoic Eunicida (Annelida: Polychaeta)Acta Palaeontologica Polonica237388Google Scholar
  72. Mierzejewski, P. 1984Sycnlinophora synclinalis Eisenack – the oldest arabellid polychaeteReview of Paleobotany and Palynology43285292Google Scholar
  73. Mierzejewski, P., Mierzejewska, G. 1975Xenognath type of polychaete jaw apparatusesActa Palaeontologica Polonica20437443Google Scholar
  74. Müller, H. 1962Über die Sexualität des Polychaeten Ophryotrocha puerilis, ihre Determination und KauapparatentwicklungZeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere52132Google Scholar
  75. Müller, M. C. M. 2002Aristonerilla: a new nerillid genus (Annelida: Polychaeta) with description of Aristonerilla (Micronerilla) brevis comb. nov. from a seawater aquariumCahiers de Biologie Marine43131139Google Scholar
  76. Müller, M., Bernhard, J. M., Jouin-Toulmond, C. 2001A new member of Nerillidae (Annelida: Polychaeta), Xenonerilla bactericola gen. et sp. nov., collected off California. USACahiers de Biologie Marine42203217Google Scholar
  77. Nordheim, H. v. 1987Petrotrocha notogaea gen. et sp. n., a neotenic interstitial polychaete (Dorvilleidae) from the Hauraki Gulf, New ZealandZoologica Scripta163338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Olive, P. J. W. 1977The life-history and population structure of the polychaetes Nephtys caeca and Nephtys hombergii with special reference to growth rings in the teethJournal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom57133150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Olive, P. J. W. 1980

    Growth lines in Polychaeta jaws

    Rhoads, D. C.Luts, R. A. eds. Skeletal Growth of Aquatic OrganismsPlenumNew York561592
    Google Scholar
  80. Orensanz, J.M. 1990The eunicemorph polychaete annelids from antarctic and subantarctic seas. With addenda to the Eunicemorpha of Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, Australia, and the Southern Indian OceanBiology of the Antarctic Seas211183Google Scholar
  81. Orrhage, L. 1964Anatomische und morphologische Studien über die Polychaetenfamilien Spionidae, Disomidae und PoecilochaetidaeZoologiska Bidrag fran Uppsala36335405Google Scholar
  82. Orrhage, L. 2001On the anatomy of the central nervous system and the morphological value of the anterior appendages of Ampharetidae, Pectinariidae and Terebellidae (Polychaeta)Acta Zoologica (Stockholm)825771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Orrhage, L. & M. C. M. Müller, 2005. Morphology of the nervous system of Polychaeta. Hydrobiologia 535/536 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 179): 79–111Google Scholar
  84. Oster, U. 1986Microfilament-supported macrovilli in the hindgut of the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatusZeitschrift für Naturforschung C4111391143Google Scholar
  85. Pander, C. H., 1856. Monographie der fossilen Fische des Silurischen Systems des Russisch-Baltischen Gouvernements. St. Petersbourg: 1–91Google Scholar
  86. Paxton, H. 1980Jaw growth and replacement in PolychaetaJournal of Natural History14543546Google Scholar
  87. Paxton, H. 2000

    Eunicida

    Beesly, P. L.Ross, G. J. B.Glasby, C. J. eds. Polychaetes and Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Vol. 4A. Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, SipunculaCSIROMelbourne89104
    Google Scholar
  88. Purschke, G. 1985aAnatomy and ultrastructure of the ventral pharyngeal organs and their phylogenetic importance in Polychaeta (Annelida). I. The pharynx of the DinophilidaeZoomorphology105223239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Purschke, G. 1985bAnatomy and ultrastructure of the ventral pharyngeal organs and their phylogenetic importance in Polychaeta (Annelida). II. The pharynx of the NerillidaeMicrofauna Marina22360Google Scholar
  90. Purschke, G. 1987aAnatomy and ultrastructure of the ventral pharyngeal organs and their phylogenetic importance in Polychaeta (Annelida). III. The pharynx of the ParergodrilidaeZoologische Jahrbücher für Anatomie115331362Google Scholar
  91. Purschke, G. 1987bAnatomy and ultrastructure of the ventral pharyngeal organs and their phylogenetic importance in Polychaeta (Annelida). IV. The pharynx and jaws of the DorvilleidaeActa Zoologica (Stockholm)6883105Google Scholar
  92. Purschke, G. 1988a. Pharynx. In Westheide, W. & C. O. Hermans (eds), The ultrastructure of Polychaeta. Microfauna Marina 4: 177–197Google Scholar
  93. Purschke, G. 1988bAnatomy and ultrastructure of the ventral pharyngeal organs and their phylogenetic importance in Polychaeta (Annelida). V. The pharynges of the Ctenodrilidae and OrbiniidaeZoomorphology108119135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Purschke, G. 1999Terrestrial polychaetes – models for the evolution of the Clitellata (Annelida)?Hydrobiologia4068799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Purschke, G. 2002On the ground pattern of AnnelidaOrganisms Diversity and Evolution2181196Google Scholar
  96. Purschke, G. 2003Is Hrabeiella periglandulata (Annelida, ‘Polychaeta’) the sister-group of Clitellata? Evidence from an ultrastructural analysis of the dorsal pharynx in H. periglandulata and Enchytraeus minutus (Annelida: Clitellata)Zoomorphology1225566Google Scholar
  97. Purschke, G., Jouin, C. 1988Anatomy and ultrastructure of the ventral pharyngeal organs of Saccocirrus (Saccocirridae) and Protodriloides (Protodriloidae fam. n.) with remarks on the phylogenetic relationships within the Protodrilida (Annelida: Polychaeta)Journal of Zoology, London215128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Purschke, G., Tzetlin, A. B. 1996Dorsolateral ciliary folds in the polychaete foregut: structure, prevalence and phylogenetic significanceActa Zoologica (Stockholm)773349Google Scholar
  99. Rice, M. E. 1973Morphology, behaviour, and histogenesis of the pelagosphera larva of Phascolosoma agassizii (Sipuncula)Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology132151Google Scholar
  100. Rice, M. E. 1976Larval development and metamorphosis in SipunculaAmerican Zoologist16563571Google Scholar
  101. Rice, M. E. 1985

    Sipuncula. Developmental evidence for phylogenetic interference

    Conway Morris, S.George, J. D.Gibson, R.Platt, H. M. eds. The origins and relationships of lower invertebratesClarendonOxford274296
    Google Scholar
  102. Rieger, R. M. 1991Neue Organisationstypen aus der Sandlückenfauna: die Lobatocerebriden und Jennaria pulchraVerhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft84247259Google Scholar
  103. Rieger, R. M., Rieger, G. E. 1975Fine structure of the pharyngeal bulb in Trilobodrilus and its phylogenetic significance within ArchiannelidaTissue and Cell7267279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rota, E. 1998Morphology and adaptations of Parergodrilus Reisinger and Hrabeiella Pizl & Chalupsky, two enigmatic soil-dwelling annelidsItalian Journal of Zoology657584Google Scholar
  105. Rouse, G. W. 2000

    Morphology and Physiology

    Beesly, P. L.Ross, G. J. B.Glasby, C. J. eds. Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Vol. 4A. Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, SipunculaCSIROMelbourne932
    Google Scholar
  106. Rouse, G. W., Plejel, F. 2001PolychaetesOxford University PressNew York1354Google Scholar
  107. Rouse, G. W., Fauchald, K. 1997Cladistics and polychaetesZoologica Scripta26139204Google Scholar
  108. Saulnier-Michel, C. 1992

    Polychaeta: Digestive System

    Harrison, F. W.Gardiner, S. L. eds. Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Vol. 7. AnnelidaWiley-LissNew York5369
    Google Scholar
  109. Saulnier-Michel, C., Gaill, G., Hily, A., Alberic, P., Cosson-Mannevy, M. A. 1990Structure and functions of the digestive tract of Alvinella pompejana, a hydrothermal vent polychaeteCanadian Journal of Zoology68722732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schmidt, P. & W. Westheide, 1972. Dinophilus gyrociliatus (Polychaeta). Nahrungsaufnahme und Fortpflanzung. Begleitveröffentlichung zum Film E1750. Encyclopaedia Cinematographica: 1–16Google Scholar
  111. Smith, D. S., Del Castillo, J., Anderson, M. 1973Fine structure and innervation of an annelid with the longest recorded sarcomereTissue and Cell5281302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Smith, P. R. 1992

    Polychaeta: Excretory system

    Harrison, F. W.Gardiner, S. L. eds. Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Vol. 7. AnnelidaWiley-LissNew York71108
    Google Scholar
  113. Southward, E.C., A. Schulze & S. L. Gardiner, 2005. Pogonophora (Annelida): Form and function. Hydrobiologia 535/536 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 179): 225–249Google Scholar
  114. Struck, T. H., Westheide, W., Purschke, G. 2002Progenesis in Eunicida (‘Polychaeta’, Annelida) separate evolutionary events? Evidence from molecular dataMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution25190199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Szaniawski, H. 1974Some mesozoic scolecodonts congeneric with recent formsActa Palaeontologica Polonica19179199Google Scholar
  116. Szaniawski, H., Wrona, R. 1987Polychaete jaws from the Cape Melville formation (Lower Miocene) of King George Island, West AntarcticaActa Palaeontologica Polonica49105125Google Scholar
  117. Tzetlin, A. B. 1980aTwo new species of the fam. Dorvilleidae from the White and the Barents SeasZoologicheskii Zhurnal5918171822(in Russian)Google Scholar
  118. Tzetlin, A. B. 1980bOphryotrocha schubravyi sp.n. and the problem of evolution of the mouth parts in the Eunicemorpha (Polychaeta)Zoologicheskii Zhurnal59666670(in Russian)Google Scholar
  119. Tzetlin, A. B. 1987Fine morphology of the pharynx apparatus in the larvae of Nicolea zostericola (Polychaeta, Terebellidae)Doklady Akademia Nauk SSSR29315051509(in Russian)Google Scholar
  120. Tzetlin, A. B. 1989Morphological analysis of the structure of the feeding apparatus in polychaetes of the genus Praxillura (Maldanidae)Doklady Academia Nauk SSSR309757760(in Russian)Google Scholar
  121. Tzetlin, A. B., 1990. To the taxonomical status of the Lumbrineris Blainville (Polychaeta: Lumbrineridae) from the White Sea. In: Biological Resource of the White Sea, Izdatel’stvo Moskovskogo Universiteta, Moscow: 99–107 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  122. Tzetlin, A. B. 1991Evolution of feeding apparatus in the polychaetes of the order CapitellidaZoologicheskii Zhurnal701022(in Russian)Google Scholar
  123. Tzetlin, A. B., 1994. Fine morphology of the feeding apparatus of Cossura sp. (Polychaeta: Cossuridae) from the White Sea. In Dauvin, J. C., L. Labier & D. Reish (eds), Actes de la 4ème Conferénce internationale des Polychètes. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. 162: 137–143Google Scholar
  124. Tzetlin, A. B., Larionov, V. V. 1988Morphology of a new archiannelid Akessoniella orientalis gen. et. sp.n. (Nerillidae)Zoologicheskii Zhurnal67846857(in Russian)Google Scholar
  125. Tzetlin, A. B., Saphonov, M. V. 1992Trochonerilla mobilis gen. et sp. n. – a meiofaunal nerillid (Annelida: Polychaeta) from a marine aquarium in MoscowZoologica Scripta21251254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tzetlin, A. B., Zavarzina, E. G., Saphonov, M. V. 1987Morphofunctional analysis of the pharyngeal structures of the several annelidsDoklady Academia Nauk SSSR29410081011(in Russian)Google Scholar
  127. Tzetlin, A. B., Purschke, G., Westheide, W., Saphonov, M. V. 1992Ultrastructure of enteronephridia and general description of the alimentary canal in Trochonerilla mobilis and Nerillidium troglochaetoides (Polychaeta: Nerillidae)Acta Zoologica (Stockholm)73163176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Uebelacker, J. M. & P. G. Johnson, 1984. Taxonomic guide to the polychaetes of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Vol. VI. Barry A Vittor & Associates, Mobile: 39-1–44-37Google Scholar
  129. Westheide, W., Nordheim, H. v. 1985Interstital Dorvilleidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Europe, Australia and New ZealandZoologica Scripta14183199Google Scholar
  130. Westheide, W. & P. Schmidt, 1974. Trilobodrilus axi (Polychaeta). Nahrungsaufnahme und Fortpflanzung. Begleitveröffentlichung zum Film E1955. Encyclopaedia Cinematographica 1–12Google Scholar
  131. Westheide, W., Rieger, R. M. 1978ultrastructure of hesionid polychaetes (Annelida)Zoomorphologie91118Google Scholar
  132. Westheide, W., Riser, N. W. 1983Morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the neotenic interstitial polychaete Apodotrocha progenerans n. gen.,n. sp. (Annelida)Zoomorphology1036787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Westheide, W., Müller, M. C. 1996Cinematographic documentation of enchytraeid morphology and reproductive biologyHydrobiologia334263267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Winnepenninckx, B. M. H., Peer, Y., Backeljau, T. 1998Metazoa relationships on the basis of 18S rRNA sequences: a few years later ...American Zoologist38888906Google Scholar
  135. Wissocq, J. C. 1974Étude ultrastructurale d’un organe musculaire constitué de fibres possédant les plus longs sarcomères du règne animal: Le proventricule des Syllidiens (Annélides Polychètes)Journal de Microscopie19285306Google Scholar
  136. Wolf, G. 1980Morphologische Untersuchungen an den Kieferapparaten einiger rezenter und fossiler Eunicoidea (Polychaeta)Senckenbergiana maritima121182Google Scholar
  137. Wolf, P. S. 1986Four new genera of Dorvilleidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Gulf of MexicoProceedings of the Biological Society of Washington99616626Google Scholar
  138. Wolff, T., Petersen, M. E. 1991A brief biography of A. S. Ørsted, with notes on his travels in the West Indies and Central America and illustrations of collected polychaetesOphelia Supplement5669685Google Scholar
  139. Zaslavskaya, N. M., 1989. Reconstruction of the phylogenesis of the family Hartmaniellidae (Polychaeta). In: Phylogenetic aspects of Paleontology, 35th session of the USSR Paleontological Society, Moscow. Abstracts: 18–19Google Scholar
  140. Zavarzina, E. G., Tzetlin, A. B. 1986Biology of Ophryotrocha dimorphica sp.n. (Polychaeta, Eunincida) from Peter the Great Bay (the Japan Sea)Zoologicheskii Zhurnal6518081817(in Russian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Invertebrate ZoologyMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Spezielle Zoologie, Fachbereich Biologie/ChemieUniversität OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany

Personalised recommendations