, Volume 534, Issue 1–3, pp 81–90 | Cite as

Long-term fish community dynamics from a blackwater stream receiving kraft mill effluent between 1973 and 1988

  • Dianne I. GreenfieldEmail author
  • Henry L. BartJr.


Archived data from a long-term (1973–1988) monitoring study were used to assess the impacts of kraft mill effluents (KME) on fish community dynamics in Elevenmile Creek, a small blackwater stream located in Cantonment, Florida, compared to a neighboring stream, Black Creek, that did not receive KME. The fish community in Elevenmile Creek was generally lower in species richness and diversity than the reference stream. The exception was the mill outfall site, which had similar species richness and diversity to the reference stream. Neither species richness nor diversity changed substantially during the survey period in either stream. Throughout the survey, Elevenmile Creek was numerically dominated by bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, and eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. Black Creek had greater abundances of minnows, suckers, and darters. Time series analysis of L. macrochirus for Elevenmile Creek showed that this species was more abundant during winter than summer, but no overall long-term trend was found. Although data used in this study may not be representative of the fish community in Elevenmile Creek as it exists today, results suggest that Elevenmile Creek was highly disturbed during the survey and that species diversity did not increase following mill treatment upgrades.


fish diversity paper mills kraft mill effluents blackwater streams bluegill mosquitofish 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marine Sciences Research CenterStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Tulane Museum of Natural HistoryBelle ChasseUSA

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