Advertisement

Subsistence Transitions and the Simplification of Ecological Networks in the Western Desert of Australia

  • Stefani A. CrabtreeEmail author
  • Douglas W. Bird
  • Rebecca Bliege Bird
Article

Abstract

The Australian desert ecosystem coevolved with humans over the course of fifty millennia, yet our understanding of the place of humans within the ecosystem is only now beginning to deepen; recent research suggests that the removal of Aboriginal people from homelands precipitated rapid ecosystem remodeling. We suggest that network-based approaches are instrumental in broadening our understanding of humans in ecosystems, so apply these approaches to examine nomadic-era ecosystems (when Aboriginal people lived exclusive foraging-based lifeways) and contemporary-era ecosystems (when Aboriginal people live a mixed-based economy lifestyle). Using the approach of food web modeling we explicitly place Martu Aboriginal foragers within the overall ecosystem of the Western Desert. By linking humans to the other biota in the desert, examining each species as nodes in a network and each consumption link as edges in the network, we can better understand the ways the network connectedness shifts between nomadic-era and contemporary-era food webs. Using network randomization simulations we show that the contemporary food webs deviate significantly from the nomadic era food webs, suggesting a key role of humans as “knitters” of the ecosystem. This work has implications for research on resilient ecosystems, both within Australia and beyond, and suggests that humans have significant roles to play in sustainability and resilience.

Keywords

Food webs Human-behavioral ecology Coupled human/natural systems Australia Networks 

Notes

Acknowledgments

First and foremost our gratitude goes to all of our Martu colleagues, friends, and family that have made this work possible. This work has been generously supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (BCS-1459880) and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10745_2019_53_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (45 kb)
Supplemental Table 1 Common network measures calculated using Network3D (Yoon et al. 2004; Williams 2010) for the current study and two other human-centered food webs studies to demonstrate comparability of the metrics. (XLSX 44 kb)
10745_2019_53_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (11 kb)
Supplemental Table 2 Output from the Niche model, including observed values, model means and standard errors. (XLSX 11 kb)
10745_2019_53_MOESM3_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 19 kb)

References

  1. Australia, Commonwealth of (2009) Assessment of Australia’s terrestrial biodiversity 2008. CurrentGoogle Scholar
  2. Australia, Commonwealth of (2018a) Australian Government : Bureau of Meteorology. http://www.bom.gov.au. Accessed 5 Jan 2018
  3. Australia, Commonwealth of (2018b) Mala/rufous hare-wallaby. In: Aust. Wildl. Conserv. http://www.australianwildlife.org/wildlife/mala-rufous-hare-wallaby.aspx. Accessed 5 Jan 2018
  4. Baiser, B., Russell, G. J., and Lockwood, J. L. (2010). Connectance determines invasion success via trophic interactions in model food webs. Oikos 119: 1970–1976.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18557.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barabási, A.-L., and Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science 286(80): 509 LP–509512.Google Scholar
  6. Bartomeus, I., Vilà, M., and Santamaría, L. (2008). Contrasting effects of invasive plants in plant–pollinator networks. Oecologia 155: 761–770.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-007-0946-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bharucha, Z., and Pretty, J. (2010). The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems. Philos trans R Soc B biol Sci 365: 2913 LP–2912926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bird, D. W., Bird, R. B., and Codding, B. F. (2009). In pursuit of Mobile prey: Martu hunting strategies and Archaeofaunal interpretation. Am Antiq 74: 3–29.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S000273160004748X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bird, D. W., Codding, B. F., Bliege Bird, R., et al (2013). Megafauna in a continent of small game: Archaeological implications of Martu camel hunting in Australia’s Western Desert. Quat Int 297: 155–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2013.01.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bliege Bird, R., and Bird, D. W. (2008). Why women hunt: Risk and contemporary foraging in a Western Desert aboriginal community. Curr Anthropol 49: 655–693.  https://doi.org/10.1086/587700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bliege Bird, R., and Nimmo, D. (2018). Restore the lost ecological functions of people. Nat Ecol Evol.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-018-0576-5.
  12. Bliege Bird, R., Bird, D. W., Codding, B. F., et al (2008). The “fire stick farming” hypothesis: Australian aboriginal foraging strategies, biodiversity, and anthropogenic fire mosaics. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105: 14796–14801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bliege Bird, R., Codding, B., Kauhanen, P., and Bird, D. (2012a). Aboriginal hunting buffers climate-driven fire-size variability in Australia’s spinifex grasslands. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109: 10287–10292.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1204585109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bliege Bird, R., Codding, B. F., Kauhanen, P. G., and Bird, D. W. (2012b). Aboriginal hunting buffers climate-driven fire-size variability in Australia’s spinifex grasslands. In Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:10287 LP-10292.Google Scholar
  15. Bliege Bird, R., Tayor, N., Codding, B. F., and Bird, D. W. (2013). Niche construction and dreaming logic: Aboriginal patch mosaic burning and varanid lizards (Varanus gouldii) in Australia. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 280: 20132297.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bliege Bird, R., Bird, D. W., and Codding, B. F. (2016). People, El Niño southern oscillation and fire in Australia: Fire regimes and climate controls in hummock grasslands. Phil Trans R Soc B 371: 20150343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bliege Bird, R., Bird, D. W., Fernandez, L. E., et al (2018). Aboriginal burning promotes fine-scale pyrodiversity and native predators in Australia’s Western Desert. Biol Conserv 219: 110–118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burbidge, A. A., and McKenzie, N. L. (1989). Patterns in the modern decline of Western Australia’s vertebrate fauna: Causes and conservation implications. Biol Conserv 50: 143–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burrows, N. D., Burbidge, A. A., Fuller, P. J., and Behn, G. (2006). Evidence of altered fire regimes in the Western Desert region of Australia. Conserv Sci West Aust 5: 14–26.Google Scholar
  20. Calladine, A., and Crichton, E. (2015). Atlas of living Australia science symposium, Review of Online and Desktop Tools for the ALA, In, pp. 1–309.Google Scholar
  21. Cane, S. (1987). Australian aboriginal subsistence in the Western desert. Hum Ecol 15: 391–434.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00887998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Castilla, J. C. (1999). Coastal marine communities: Trends and perspectives from human-exclusion experiments. Trends Ecol Evol 14: 280–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01602-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Codding BF (2011) “Any kangaroo?” On the ecology, ethnography and archaeology of foraging in Australia’s arid west. Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  24. Codding, B. F., Bird, R. B., Kauhanen, P. G., and Bird, D. W. (2014). Conservation or co-evolution? Intermediate levels of aboriginal burning and hunting have positive effects on kangaroo populations in Western Australia. Hum Ecol 42: 659–669.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-014-9682-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Codding, B. F., Bliege Bird, R., Bird, D. W., and Zeanah, D. W. (2016). Alternative aboriginal economies: Martu livelihoods in the 21st century. In Codding, B. F., and Kramer, K. (eds.), Why forage? 21st century hunting and gathering. University of new Mexico Press, pp. 185–211.Google Scholar
  26. Crabtree, S. A., Bocinsky, R. K., Hooper, P. L., et al (2017a). How to make a polity (in the Central Mesa Verde region). Am Antiq 82: 71–95.  https://doi.org/10.1017/aaq.2016.18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crabtree, S. A., Vaughn, L. J. S., and Crabtree, N. T. (2017b). Reconstructing Ancestral Pueblo food webs in the southwestern United States. J Archaeol Sci 81: 116–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2017.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crooks, K. R., and Soulé, M. E. (1999). Mesopredator release and avifaunal extinctions in a fragmented system. Nature 400: 563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dunne, J. A. (2006). The network structure of food webs. In Pascual, M., and Dunne, J. A. (eds.), Ecological networks: Linking structure to dynamics in food webs, Oxford University Press, New York, USA, pp. 27–85.Google Scholar
  30. Dunne, J. A., and Williams, R. J. (2009). Cascading extinctions and community collapse in model food webs. Philos Trans Biol Sci 364: 1711–1723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dunne, J. A., Williams, R. J., and Martinez, N. D. (2002a). Network structure and biodiversity loss in food webs: Robustness increases with connectance. Ecol Lett 5: 558–567.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2002.00354.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dunne, J. A., Williams, R. J., and Martinez, N. D. (2002b). Network structure and biodiversity loss in food webs: Robustness increases with connectance. Ecol Lett 5: 558–567.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1461-0248.2002.00354.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dunne, J. A., Williams, R. J., and Martinez, N. D. (2004). Network structure and robustness of marine food webs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 273: 291–302.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps273291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dunne, J. A., Williams, R. J., Martinez, N. D., et al (2008). Compilation and network analyses of Cambrian food webs. PLoS Biol 6: 693–708.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dunne, J. A., Lafferty, K. D., Dobson, A. P., et al (2013). Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity. PLoS Biol 11.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001579.
  36. Dunne, J. A., Maschner, H., Betts, M. W., et al (2016). The roles and impacts of human hunter-gatherers in North Pacific marine food webs. Sci Rep 6: 21179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Eder, J. F. (1988). Batak foraging camps today: A window to the history of a hunting-gathering economy. Hum Ecol 16: 35–55.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01262025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Futuyma, D. J., and Moreno, G. (2014). The evolution of ecological specialization. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19: 207–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Geyle, H. M., Woinarski, J. C. Z., Baker, G. B., et al (2018). Quantifying extinction risk and forecasting the number of impending Australian bird and mammal extinctions. Pacific Conserv Biol 24: 157–167.  https://doi.org/10.1071/PC18006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Godoy, R., Reyes-García, V., Byron, E., et al (2005). The effect of market economies on the well-being of indigenous peoples and on their use of renewable natural resources. Annu Rev Anthropol 34: 121–138.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.081804.120412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gould, R. A. (1969). Subsistence behaviour among the Western Desert aborigines of Australia. Oceania 39: 253–274.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1834-4461.1969.tb01026.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gould, R. A. (1971). Uses and effects of fire among the Western Desert aborigines of Australia. Mankind 8: 14–24.Google Scholar
  43. Hames, R. B., and Vickers, W. T. (2018). Optimal diet breadth theory as a model to explain variability in Amazonian hunting. Am Ethnol 9: 358–378.  https://doi.org/10.1525/ae.1982.9.2.02a00090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hanazaki, N., and Begossi, A. (2003). Does fish still matter? Changes in the diet of two Brazilian fishing communities. Ecol Food Nutr 42: 279–301.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03670240390229643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jones, R. (1969). Fire-stick farming. Aust Nat Hist 16: 224–228.Google Scholar
  46. Kimber, R. (1983). Black lightning: Aborigines and fire in Central Australia and the Western Desert. Archaeol Ocean 18: 38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. King, D., and Green, B. (1979). Notes on diet and reproduction of the sand goanna , Varanus gouldii rosenbergi. Copeia 1979: 64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kuchikura, Y. (1988). Food use and nutrition in hunting and gathering Community in Transition, peninsular Malaysia. Man Cult Ocean 4: 1–30.Google Scholar
  49. Latz P (2004) Bushfires and Bushtucker: Australian aboriginal plant use in Central Australia. IAD PressGoogle Scholar
  50. Leahy, L., Legge, S. M., Tuft, K., et al (2016). Amplified predation after fire suppresses rodent populations in Australia’s tropical savannas. Wildl Res 42: 705–716.  https://doi.org/10.1071/WR15011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liu, J., Yang, W., and Li, S. (2016). Framing ecosystem services in the telecoupled Anthropocene. Front Ecol Environ 14: 27–36.  https://doi.org/10.1002/16-0188.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maccord PL, Begossi A (2006) Dietary Changes over Time in a Caiçara Community from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mudanças dietéticas com o passar do tempo em uma Comunidade de Caiçara da Floresta Atlântica brasileira. Ecol Soc 11:13Google Scholar
  53. Maschner, H. D. G., Betts, M. W., Cornell, J., et al (2009). An introduction to the biocomplexity of Sanak Island , Western Gulf of Alaska. Pacific Sci 63: 673–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. May, R. M. (1972). Will a large complex system be stable? Nature 238: 413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McCall, G. S. (2000). Ju/‘hoansi adaptations to a cash economy. African Sociol Rev 4: 138–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McCann, K., Hastings, A., and Huxel, G. R. (1998). Weak trophic interactions and the balance of nature. Nature 395: 794–798.  https://doi.org/10.1038/27427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McGregor, H. W., Legge, S., Jones, M. E., and Johnson, C. N. (2014). Landscape management of fire and grazing regimes alters the fine-scale habitat utilisation by feral cats. PLoS One 9.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109097.
  58. McNaughton, S. J. (1978). Stability and diversity of ecological communities. Nature 274: 251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Memmott, J., Waser, N. M., and Price, M. V. (2004). Tolerance of pollination networks to species extinctions. Proc R Soc London Ser B biol Sci 271: 2605 LP–2602611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Neutel, A.-M., Heesterbeek, J. A. P., and de Ruiter, P. C. (2002). Stability in real food webs: Weak links in long loops. Science 296(80): 1120 LP–1121123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Norton, B. G. (2000). Population and consumption: Environmental problems as problems of scale. Ethics Environ 5: 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. O’Connell, J. F., and Hawkes, K. (1984). Food choice and foraging sites among the Alyawara. J Anthropol Res 40: 504–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Orians G, Pearson N (1979) On the theory of central place foraging. In: Horn D, Mitchell R, Stairs G (eds) Advances in Ecological Systems. pp 154–177Google Scholar
  64. Pimm, S. L. (1979). The structure of food webs. Theor Popul Biol 16: 144–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-5809(79)90010-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Post, W. M., and Pimm, S. L. (1983). Community assembly and food web stability. Math Biosci 64: 169–192.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-5564(83)90002-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ready, E., and Power, E. A. (2017). Why wage earners hunt: Food sharing, social structure, and influence in an Arctic mixed economy. Curr Anthropol 59: 74–97.  https://doi.org/10.1086/696018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rezende, E. L., Lavabre, J. E., Guimarães, P. R., et al (2007). Non-random coextinctions in phylogenetically structured mutualistic networks. Nature 448: 925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Romanuk, T. N., Zhou, Y., Brose, U., et al (2009). Predicting invasion success in complex ecological networks. Philos trans R Soc B biol Sci 364: 1743 LP–1741754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Romanuk TN, Zhou Y, Valdovinos FS, Martinez ND (2017) Robustness trade-offs in model food webs: Invasion probability decreases while invasion consequences increase with Connectance, 1st edn. Elsevier Ltd.Google Scholar
  70. Scelza, B. A. (2012). Food scarcity, not economic constraint limits consumption in a rural aboriginal community. Aust J Rural Health 20: 108–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Scelza, B. A., Bird, D. W., and Bliege Bird, R. (2014). Bush Tucker, shop Tucker: Production, consumption, and diet at an aboriginal outstation. Ecol Food Nutr 53: 98–117.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03670244.2013.772513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schoener, T. W. (1979). Generality of the size-distance relation in models of optimal feeding. Am Nat 114: 902–914.  https://doi.org/10.1086/283537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith-Ramesh, L. M., Moore, A. C., and Schmitz, O. J. (2017). Global synthesis suggests that food web connectance correlates to invasion resistance. Glob Chang Biol 23: 465–473.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Solé, R. V., and Montoya, M. (2001). Complexity and fragility in ecological networks. Proc R Soc London Ser B biol Sci 268: 2039 LP–2032045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Srinivasan, U. T., Dunne, J. A., Harte, J., and Martinez, N. D. (2007). Response of complex food webs to realistic extinction sequences. Ecology 88: 671–682.  https://doi.org/10.1890/06-0971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sutherland, D. R., Glen, A. S., and de Tores, P. J. (2011). Could controlling mammalian carnivores lead to mesopredator release of carnivorous reptiles? Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 278: 641–648.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.2103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Svanbäck, R., and Bolnick, D. I. (2007). Intraspecific competition drives increased resource use diversity within a natural population. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 274: 839–844.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.0198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Terborgh, J., Lopez, L., Nuñez, P., et al (2001). Ecological meltdown in predator-free Forest fragments. Science 294(80): 1923 LP–1921926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Thompson, R. M., Brose, U., Dunne, J. A., et al (2012). Food webs: Reconciling the structure and function of biodiversity. Trends Ecol Evol 27: 689–697.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.08.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tylianakis, J. M., Laliberté, E., Nielsen, A., and Bascompte, J. (2010). Conservation of species interaction networks. Biol Conserv 143: 2270–2279.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Walsh, F. J. (1987). The influence of the spatial and temporal distribution of plant food resources on traditional Martujarra subsistence strategies. Aust Archaeol: 88–101.Google Scholar
  82. Walsh, F. (1990). An ecological study of traditional aboriginal use of ‘“country”’: Martu in the great and little Sandy deserts, Western Australia. Proc Ecol Soc Aust 16: 23–37.Google Scholar
  83. Walsh F (2008) To hunt and to hold: Martu aboriginal people’s uses and knowledge of their country, with implications for co-management in Karlamilyi (Rudall River) National Park and the great Sandy Desert, Western Australia. The University of Western AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  84. Walsh, F., and Douglas, J. (2011). No bush foods without people: The essential human dimension to the sustainability of trade in native plant products from desert Australia. Rangel J 33: 395–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Walsh, F. J., Dobson, P. V., and Douglas, J. C. (2013). Anpernirrentye: A framework for enhanced application of indigenous ecological knowledge in natural resource management. Ecol Soc 18.  https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-05501-180318.
  86. Williams RJ (2010) Network3D software. In: Microsoft Research. Cambridge, U. K.Google Scholar
  87. Williams, R. J., Berlow, E. L., Dunne, J. A., et al (2002). Two degrees of separation in complex food webs. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99: 12913–12916.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.192448799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Winterhalder, B. (1981). Foraging strategies in the boreal forest: An analysis of Cree hunting and gathering. In Winterhalder, B., and Smith, E. A. (eds.), Hunter gatherer foraging strategies: Ethnographic and archeological analyses. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 66–98.Google Scholar
  89. Woinarski J, Legge S, Fitzsimons J, et al (2011) The disappearing mammal fauna of northern Australia: Context, cause, and responseGoogle Scholar
  90. Woinarski, J. C. Z., Burbidge, A. A., and Harrison, P. L. (2015). Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: Decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement. Proc Natl Acad Sci 112: 4531 LP–4534540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yoon I, Williams R, Levine E, et al (2004) Webs on the web (WOW): 3D visualization of ecological networks on the WWW for collaborative research and education. Pp 124–132Google Scholar
  92. Zeanah, D. W., Codding, B. F., Bird, D. W., et al (2015). Diesel and damper: Changes in seed use and mobility patterns following contact amongst the Martu of Western Australia. J Anthropol Archaeol 39: 51–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaa.2015.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zeanah, D. W., Codding, B. F., Bird, R. B., and Bird, D. W. (2017). Mosaics of fire and water: The co-emergence of anthropogenic landscapes and intensive seed exploitation in the Australian arid zone. Aust Archaeol 83: 2–19.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03122417.2017.1359876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zhu, Y., Yan, X., and Moore, C. (2014). Oriented and degree-generated block models: Generating and inferring communities with inhomogeneous degree distributions. J Complex Networks 2: 1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1093/comnet/cnt011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ziembicki M, Woinarski J, Mackey B (2013) Evaluating the status of species using Indigenous knowledge: Novel evidence for major native mammal declines in northern AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  96. Ziembicki, M. R., Woinarski, J. C. Z., Webb, J. K., et al (2015). Stemming the tide: Progress towards resolving the causes of decline and implementing management responses for the disappearing mammal fauna of northern Australia. Therya 6: 169–226.  https://doi.org/10.12933/therya-15-236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefani A. Crabtree
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Douglas W. Bird
    • 1
  • Rebecca Bliege Bird
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Center for Research and InterdisciplinarityParisFrance
  3. 3.Crow Canyon Archaeological CenterCortezUSA

Personalised recommendations