Advertisement

People and Blue Carbon: Conservation and Settlements in the Mangrove Forests of Mexico

  • Alejandro Espinoza-TenorioEmail author
  • Nancy I. Millán-Vásquez
  • Nicolás Vite-García
  • Graciela Alcalá-Moya
Article
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

Mangroves provide multiple valuable environmental services, including their high potential for the sequestration of blue carbon. However, mangrove conservation is socially demanding. Through a spatiotemporal analysis of the inhabitants of this dynamic coastal ecosystem in Mexico, we found that the numbers of small settlements within mangroves increased during the study period despite a decline in mangrove stands and in the human populations inhabiting them. Extended rural developments have been banished to external buffer areas, whereas near-subsistence hamlets are increasingly occupying mangrove forest. The ability of mangroves to sequester atmospheric blue carbon relies on regional socioeconomic patterns and stressors that should be considered in the development of mangrove conservation initiatives. Our study enables identification of potential areas of research — e.g., forestry buffer zones, social exclusion, permanent settlements, and integral monitoring — that can incorporate the social dimensions of blue carbon conservation into the political and research agendas.

Keywords

Climate change Environmental services Coastal ecosystems Mangrove settlements Blue carbon sequestration Mexico 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank A. Ayer, H. Ferro-Azcona, R. Ramos-Reyes, A. Fenochio-Figueroa, O. Cervantes-Rosas for the photographic material.

Funding information

The study was partially supported by Mexican Academy of Science under Scientific Research Summer’s scholarship to NI. Millán-Vázquez.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. We asked for illustrative photos from researchers working with mangrove inhabitants in Mexico (Fig. 1).

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the photographs.

References

  1. Adame, M. F., Kauffman, J. B., Medina, I., Gamboa, J. N., Torres, O., Caamal, J. P., Reza, M., and Herrera-Silveira, J. A. (2013). Carbon stocks of tropical coastal wetlands within the Karstic landscape of the Mexican Caribbean. PLoS One 8(2): e56569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adame, M. F., Santini, N. S., Tovilla, C., Vázquez-Lule, A., Castro, L., and Guevara, M. (2015). Carbon stocks and soil sequestration rates of tropical riverine wetlands. Biogeosciences 12(12): 3805–3818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albert, C. O., Nwiisuator, D., and Gangan, B. C. (2012). Socio economic importance of red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa L) to rural dwellers in southern Nigeria. Journal of Natural Sciences Research 2(8): 182–186.Google Scholar
  4. Alcalá, G. (2003). Políticas Pesqueras en México (1946–2000): Contradicciones y Aciertos en la Planificación de la Pesca Nacional, El Colegio de México, México.Google Scholar
  5. Alcalá, G. (2017). Coastal fishermen and coastal environment transformation in the Pacific central American coastal large marine ecosystem. Environmental Development 22: 78–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alongi, D. M. (2014). Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests. Annual Review of Marine Science 6(1): 195–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alonso-Pérez, F., Ruiz-Luna, A., Turner, J., Berlanga-Robles, C. A., and Mitchelson-Jacob, G. (2003). Land cover changes and impact of shrimp aquaculture on the landscape in the Ceuta coastal lagoon system, Sinaloa, Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management 46(6–7): 583–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Angelsen, A. (2009). Realising REDD+: National Strategy and policy options, center for international forestry research, Bogor, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  9. Atwood, T. B., Connolly, R. M., Almahasheer, H., Carnell, P. E., Duarte, C. M., Lewis, C. J. E., Irigoien, X., Kelleway, J. J., Lavery, P. S., Macreadie, P. I., Serrano, O., Sanders, C. J., Santos, I., Steven, A. D. L., and Lovelock, C. E. (2017). Global patterns in mangrove soil carbon stocks and losses. Nature Climate Change 7(7): 523–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ballinas, V., Saldierna, G., Cruz, A., Balboa, J., Boffil, L., Martoccia, H., and Chavez, J. (2005). Un Millón de Damnificados Deja Wilma en Quintana Roo y Yucatán, La Jornada, Mexico.Google Scholar
  11. Bear, C., and Bull, J. (2011). Water matters: Agency, flows, and frictions. Environment and Planning A43: 2261–2266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berlanga-Robles, C. A., Ruiz-Luna, A., Bocco, G., and Vekerdy, Z. (2011). Spatial analysis of the impact of shrimp culture on the coastal wetlands on the northern coast of Sinaloa, Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management 54(7): 535–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beymer-Farris, B. A., and Bassett, T. J. (2012). The REDD menace: Resurgent protectionism in Tanzania's mangrove forests. Global Environmental Change 22(2): 332–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bianchi, T. S., Allison, M. A., Zhao, J., Li, X., Comeaux, R. S., Feagin, R. A., and Kulawardhana, R. W. (2013). Historical reconstruction of mangrove expansion in the Gulf of Mexico: Linking climate change with carbon sequestration in coastal wetlands. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 119: 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boon, J. M. (2001). A socio-economic analysis of mangrove degradation in Samoa. Geographical Review of Japan 74(2): 159–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Camacho-Ibar, V. F., and Rivera-Monroy, V. H. (2014). Coastal lagoons and estuaries in Mexico: Processes and vulnerability. Estuaries and Coasts 37(6): 1313–1318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carpenter, S. R., Mooney, H. A., Agard, J., Capistrano, D., DeFries, R. S., Diaz, S., Dietz, T., Duraiappah, A. K., Oteng-Yeboah, A., Pereira, H. M., Perrings, C., Reid, W. V., Sarukhan, J., Scholes, R. J., and Whyte, A. (2009). Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the millennium ecosystem assessment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(5): 1305–1312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Castellanos-Galindo, G. A., Kluger, L. C., and Tompkins, P. (2017). Panama's impotent mangrove laws. Science 355(6328): 918.912–918.919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. CCA (2017). Análisis de las Oportunidades Para la Integración del Concepto de Carbono Azul en la Política Pública Mexicana, CCA, Montreal.Google Scholar
  20. CEC (2014). North America’s blue carbon: Assessing the role of coastal habitats in the Continent’s carbon budget, CEC, Montreal.Google Scholar
  21. CEC (2016). North America’s blue carbon: Assessing Seagrass, salt marsh and mangrove distribution and carbon sinks, CEC, Montréal.Google Scholar
  22. Chavez-Comparan, J. C. (1986). Considerations for development of a coastal zone management program in the state of Colima, Mexico, Oregon State University, Corvallis.Google Scholar
  23. CONABIO. (2005). Sistema de Monitoreo de los Manglares de México. Retrieved from http://www.biodiversidad.gob.mx/ecosistemas/manglares2013/extensionDist.html. Accessed 10 Oct 2016.
  24. CONABIO (2009). Manglares de México: Extensión y Distribución, CONABIO, Distrito Federal.Google Scholar
  25. Crase, B., Liedloff, A., Vesk, P. A., Burgman, M. A., and Wintle, B. A. (2013). Hydroperiod is the main driver of the spatial pattern of dominance in mangrove communities. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22(7): 806–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crooks, S., Herr, D., Tamelander, J., Laffoley, D., and Vandever, J. (2011). Mitigating climate change through restoration and Management of Coastal Wetlands and Near-Shore Marine Ecosystems: Challenges and opportunities, environment department paper 121, World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  27. De la Rosa-Velázquez, M. I., Espinoza-Tenorio, A., Díaz-Perera, M. Á., Ortega-Argueta, A., Ramos-Reyes, R., and Espejel, I. (2017). Development stressors are stronger than protected area management: A case of the Pantanos de Centla biosphere reserve, Mexico. Land Use Policy 67: 340–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dittmar, T., Hertkorn, N., Kattner, G., and Lara, R. J. (2006). Mangroves, a major source of dissolved organic carbon to the oceans. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20(1): GB1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Domínguez-Domínguez, M., Zavala-Cruz, J., and Martínez-Zurimendi, P. (2011). Manejo Forestal Sustentable de los Manglares de Tabasco. Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y Protección Ambiental, Colegio de Prostgraduados, Villahermosa.Google Scholar
  30. Donato, D. C., Kauffman, J. B., Murdiyarso, D., Kurnianto, S., Stidham, M., and Kanninen, M. (2011). Mangroves among the Most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nature Geoscience 4(5): 293–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duke, N. C., Meynecke, J. O., Dittmann, S., Ellison, A. M., Anger, K., Berger, U., Cannicci, S., Diele, K., Ewel, K. C., Field, C. D., Koedam, N., Lee, S. Y., Marchand, C., Nordhaus, I., and Dahdouh-Guebas, F. (2007). A world without mangroves? Science 317(5834): 41b–42b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ellenbogen, K. (2012). Coastal ecosystems: Why sound Management of these key Natural Carbon Sinks Matter for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change? The Blue Carbon Initiative, USA.Google Scholar
  33. Espinoza-Tenorio, A., Bravo-Peña, L., Serrano-Guzmán, J. S., Ronsón-Paulín, J., Ahumada, M. A., Hernández, P. C., Zavala, E. R., Fuentes, M., Mendoza, A. R. G., and Berumen, M. I. G. (2012). La Diversidad Étnica Como Factor de Planeación Pesquera Artesanal: Chontales, Huaves y Zapotecas del Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México. In M. G. Alcalá-Moya, and A. Camargo (Ed.), Estudios Etnográficos Sobre Pesca y Pescadores en América Latina y el Caribe, IPN, GEACES, pp. 167–216.Google Scholar
  34. Espinoza-Tenorio, A., Moreno-Baez, M., Pech, D., Zapata, G. J. V., Hernandez, L. V., Miranda, J. R., Carranza, M. M., Dominguez, J. A. Z., Moya, G. A., Jimenez, J. C. P., Rosete, F., Leon, C., and Espejel, I. (2014). El Ordenamiento Ecologico Marino en Mexico: Un Reto y una Invitacion al Quehacer Cientifico. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 42(3): 386–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Espinoza-Tenorio, A., Zepeda-Domínguez, J. A., Gómez, J. C. N., Carranza, M. M., and Barba, E. (2015). ¿De la Intuición al Conocimiento Científico? Publicaciones Sobre las Lagunas Costeras de Tabasco, México. Interciencia 40(7): 448–456.Google Scholar
  36. FAO. (2007). The World’s mangroves 1980–2005, FAO forestry paper 153, food and agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  37. Felger, R. S., and Moser, M. B. (1973a). Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Gulf of California: Discovery of its nutritional value by the Seri Indians. Science 181(4097): 355–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Felger, R. S., and Moser, M. B. (1973b). Seri Indian Pharmacopoeia. Economic Botany 28(4): 415–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Flores-Mejía, M. A., Aguirre-Vallejo, A., Flores-Hernández, M., and Guardado-Govea, X. (2010). El Impacto Que Produce el Sector Turismo en los Manglares de las Costas Mexicanas. ContactoS 77: 33–38.Google Scholar
  40. Foroughbakhch, P. R., Cespedes, C. A. E., Alvarado, V. M. A., Núñez, G. A., and Badii, M. H. (2004). Aspectos Ecológicos de los Manglares y su Potencial Como Fitorremediadores en el Golfo de México, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México.Google Scholar
  41. Fujita, R., Lynham, J., Micheli, F., Feinberg, P. G., Bourillón, L., Sáenz-Arroyo, A., and Markham, A. C. (2013). Ecomarkets for conservation and sustainable development in the coastal zone. Biological Reviews 88(2): 273–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gabriel-Morales, J., and Pérez-Damián, J. L. (2006). Crecimiento Poblacional e Instrumentos Para la Regulación Ambiental de los Asentamientos Humanos en los Municipios Costeros de México. Gaceta Ecológica 79: 53–77.Google Scholar
  43. García-Quijano, C. G., and Pitchon, A. (2010). Aquatic Ethnobiology. In Stepp, J. R. (ed.), Ethnobiology, 1st edition, encyclopedia of life support systems (EOLSS), UNESCO Press, Oxford, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  44. Gibson, C. C., Ostrom, E., and Ahn, T. K. (2000). The concept of scale and the human dimensions of global change: A survey. Ecological Economics 32(2): 217–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Giri, C., Ochieng, E., Tieszen, L. L., Zhu, Z., Singh, A., Loveland, T., Masek, J., and Duke, N. (2011). Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Global Ecology and Biogeography 20(1): 154–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Glaser, M., Krause, G., Oliveira, R. S., and Fontalvo-Herazo, M. (2010). Mangroves and people: A social-ecological system. In Saint-Paul, U., and Schneider, H. (eds.), Mangrove dynamics and management in North Brazil, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 307–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gutiérrez-De-MacGregor, M. T., and González-Sánchez, J. (1999). Las Costas Mexicanas y su Crecimiento Urbano. Investigaciones Geográficas 1(40): 110–126.Google Scholar
  48. Haber, S., Maurer, N., and Razo, A. (2003). When the law does not matter: The rise and decline of the Mexican oil industry. The Journal of Economic History 63(1): 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Herrera-Silveira, J. A., Camacho, A., Pech, E., Pech, M., Ramírez, J. R., and Hernández, C. T. (2016). Carbon dynamics (stocks and fluxes) in mangroves of Mexico. Terra Latinoamericana 34(1): 61–72.Google Scholar
  50. Hirales-Cota, M., Espinoza-Avalos, J., Schmook, B., Ruiz-Luna, A., and Ramos-Reyes, R. (2010). Drivers of mangrove deforestation in Mahahual-Xcalak, Quintana Roo, Southeast Mexico. Ciencias Marinas 36(2): 147–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Holland, T. L., Romero, J. M., Davidson-Arnott, R., and Cardille, J. (2011). Cambios en el Paisaje de un Sistema Costero Sometido al Desarrollo Turístico: Implicaciones Para la Laguna Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, México. Investigaciones Geográficas 74: 7–18.Google Scholar
  52. INEGI (2010). Levantamiento. Manual de Cartografía Geoestadística, INEGI, Aguascalientes.Google Scholar
  53. Kauffman, J. B., Hernandez-Trejo, H., Garcia, M. D. C. J., Heider, C., and Contreras, W. M. (2016). Carbon stocks of mangroves and losses arising from their conversion to cattle pastures in the Pantanos de Centla, Mexico. Wetlands Ecology and Management 24(2): 203–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Krause, F. (2017). Towards an amphibious anthropology of delta life. Human Ecology 45(3): 403–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kristensen, E., Bouillon, S., Dittmar, T., and Marchand, C. (2008). Organic carbon dynamics in mangrove ecosystems: A review. Aquatic Botany 89(2): 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kunstadter, P., Bird, C. F. E., and Sabhasri, S. (1986). Man in the mangroves: The socio-economic situation of human settlements in mangrove forests, United Nations University, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  57. Landgrave, R., and Moreno-Casasola, P. (2011). Evaluación Cuantitativa de la Pérdida de Humedales en México [Quantitative Assessment of Wetland Loss in Mexico]. Investigation Ambiental 4(1): 19–35.Google Scholar
  58. Larson, A. M. (2011). Forest tenure reform in the age of climate change: Lessons for REDD+. Global Environmental Change 21(2): 540–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Larson, A. M., Brockhaus, M., Sunderlin, W. D., Duchelle, A., Babon, A., Dokken, T., Pham, T. T., Resosudarmo, I. A. P., Selaya, G., Awono, A., and Huynh, T.-B. (2013). Land tenure and REDD+: The good, the bad and the ugly. Global Environmental Change 23(3): 678–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Larson, A. M., Corbera, E., Cronkleton, P., Van Dam, C., Bray, D. B., Estrada, M., May, P., Medina, G., Navarro, G., and Pacheco, P. (2010). Rights to forests and carbon under REDD + initiatives in Latin America, Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  61. Linares-Mazariegos, R., Tovilla-Hernández, C., and De la Presa, J. C. (2004). Educación Ambiental: Una Alternativa Para la Conservación del Manglar. Madera y Bosques 10(1): 105–114.Google Scholar
  62. López-Portillo, J., and Ezcurra, E. (2002). Los Manglares de México: Una Revisión. Madera y Bosques 8(Es1): 27–51.Google Scholar
  63. Lugo, A. E., Medina, E., and McGinley, K. (2014). Issues and challenges of mangrove conservation in the Anthropocene. Madera y Bosques 20: 11–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Luisetti, T., Jackson, E. L., and Turner, R. K. (2013). Valuing the European ‘coastal blue carbon’ storage benefit. Marine Pollution Bulletin 71(1–2): 101–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mace, G. M. (2014). Whose conservation? Science 345(6204): 1558–1560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Macreadie, P. I., Ollivier, Q. R., Kelleway, J. J., Serrano, O., Carnell, P. E., Lewis, C. J. E., Atwood, T. B., Sanderman, J., Baldock, J., Connolly, R. M., Duarte, C. M., Lavery, P. S., Steven, A., and Lovelock, C. E. (2017). Carbon sequestration by Australian tidal marshes. Scientific Reports 7(1): 44071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Magaña, V., Gómez, L., Neri, C., Landa, R., León, C., and Ávila, B. (2011). Medidas de Adaptación al Cambio Climático en Humedales del Golfo de México, Banco Mundial - Instituto Nacional de Ecología, México.Google Scholar
  68. Mas, J.-F., Velázquez, A., Díaz-Gallegos, J. R., Mayorga-Saucedo, R., Alcántara, C., Bocco, G., Castro, R., Fernández, T., and Pérez-Vega, A. (2004). Assessing land use/cover changes: A nationwide multidate spatial database for Mexico. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 5(4): 249–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mojica-Vélez, J. M., Barrasa-García, S., and Espinoza-Tenorio, A. (2018). Policies in coastal wetlands: Key challenges. Environmental Science & Policy 88: 72–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Monroy-Torres, M. (2014). Growth of three subtropical mangrove species in response to varying Hydroperiod in an experimental tank. Ciencias Marinas 40(4): 263–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mora, C., and Sale, P. F. (2011). Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: A review of the technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 434: 251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Morales-Rodríguez, J. R., Ortega-Argueta, A., Ramos-Muñoz, D. E., and Gurri-García, F. D. (2019). La Capacidad de Adaptación en la Reserva de la Biosfera Pantanos de Centla, México. Economía Sociedad y Territorio XVIII 59: 1119.Google Scholar
  73. Moreno-Cáliz, E., Guerrero-Peña, A., Gutiérrez-Castorena, M. D. C., Ortiz-Solorio, C. A., and Palma-López, D. J. (2002). Los Manglares de Tabasco, Una Reserva Natural de Carbono. Madera y Bosques 8: 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moreno-Casasola, P., Galaviz, J. L. R., Lomelí, D. Z., Pérez, M. A. O., Domínguez, A. L. L., and Vázquez, T. S. (2002). Diagnóstico de los Manglares de Veracruz: Distribución, Vínculo con los Recursos Pesqueros y su Problemática. Madera y Bosques 8: 61–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moreno-Casasola, P., Infante, M. D., Travieso-Bello, A. C., and Madero, C. (2009). Manual Para la Reforestación de los Médano, INECOL, Xalapa.Google Scholar
  76. Moura, G. G. M. (2017). Introdução: Avanços em Oceanografia Humana e o Socioambientalismo Nas Ciências do Mar. In Moura, G. G. M. (ed.), Avanços em Oceanografria Humana: O Socioambientalismo nas Ciências do Mar, Paco Editorial, Jundiaí, pp. 7–48.Google Scholar
  77. Mumby, P. J., Edwards, A. J., Arias-González, J. E., Lindeman, K. C., Blackwell, P. G., Gall, A., Gorczynska, M. I., Harborne, A. R., Pescod, C. L., Renken, H., Wabnitz, C. C. C., and Llewellyn, G. (2004). Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature 427(6974): 533–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Murray, G. (2007). Constructing paradise: The impacts of big tourism in the Mexican coastal zone. Coastal Management 35(2–3): 339–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nahlik, A. M., and Fennessy, M. S. (2016). Carbon storage in US wetlands. Nature Communications 7(1): 13835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Narchi, N. E., Aguilar-Rosas, L. E., Sánchez-Escalante, J. J., and Waumann-Rojas, D. O. (2015). An Ethnomedicinal study of the Seri people; A Group of Hunter-Gatherers and Fishers Native to the Sonoran Desert. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 11(1): 62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nellemann, C., Corcoran, E., Duarte, C. M., Valdés, L., DeYoung, C., Fonseca, L., and Grimsditch, G. (2009). Blue carbon. A Rapid Response Assessment, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  82. Ortiz-Pérez, M., Méndez-Linares, A., and Hernández, J. (2013). Sea-level rise and vulnerability of coastal lowlands in the Mexican areas of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. In Day, J. W. (ed.), Gulf of Mexico origin, waters, and biota: Volume 4, ecosystem-based management, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 273–289.Google Scholar
  83. Pendleton, L., Donato, D. C., Murray, B. C., Crooks, S., Jenkins, W. A., Sifleet, S., Craft, C., Fourqurean, J. W., Kauffman, J. B., Marbà, N., Megonigal, P., Pidgeon, E., Herr, D., Gordon, D., and Baldera, A. (2012). Estimating global “blue carbon” emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems. PLoS One 7(9): e43542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Polidoro, B. A., Carpenter, K. E., Collins, L., Duke, N. C., Ellison, A. M., Ellison, J. C., Farnsworth, E. J., Fernando, E. S., Kathiresan, K., Koedam, N. E., Livingstone, S. R., Miyagi, T., Moore, G. E., Nam, V. N., Ong, J. E., Primavera, J. H., Salmo, S. G., Sanciangco, J. C., Sukardjo, S., Wang, Y., and Yong, J. W. H. (2010). The loss of species: Mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. PLoS One 5(4): e10095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pontee, N. (2013). Defining coastal squeeze: A discussion. Ocean & Coastal Management 84: 204–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ruiz-Luna, A., and Berlanga-Robles, C. A. (2003). Land use, land cover changes and coastal lagoon surface reduction associated with urban growth in Northwest Mexico. Landscape Ecology 18(2): 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sangdee, P. (1986). Health and sanitation among mangrove dwellers in Thailand. In Kunstadter, P., Bird, E. C. F., and Sabhasri, S. (eds.), Man in the mangroves: The socio-economic situation of human settlements in mangrove forests, United Nations University Press, Tokyo, pp. 44–49.Google Scholar
  88. Seingier, G., Espejel, I., and Fermán-Almada, J. L. (2009). Cobertura Vegetal y Marginación en la Costa Mexicana. Investigacion Ambiental Ciencia y Politica Publica 1(1): 54–69.Google Scholar
  89. SEMARNAT (2003). 26 (Primera Sección) DIARIO OFICIAL Jueves 10 de Abril de 2003. D Of la Fed 26: 22.Google Scholar
  90. SEMARNAT (2017). Understanding blue carbon, Ciudad de Mexico, México.Google Scholar
  91. Sousa, A. I., Santos, D. B., Da Silva, E. F., Sousa, L. P., Cleary, D. F. R., Soares, A. M. V. M., and Lillebø, A. I. (2017). ‘Blue carbon’ and nutrient stocks of salt marshes at a temperate coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Scientific Reports 7(1): 41225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Spalding, M., Kainuma, M., and Collins, L. (2010). World atlas of mangroves (version 3.0). A collaborative project of ITTO, ISME, FAO, UNEP-WCMC, UNESCO-MAB, UNU-INWEH and TNC, Earthscan London, London, UK.Google Scholar
  93. Thaman, R. R. (1994). Marine Ethnobiology: A Foundation for marine science education in the Pacific Islands, Department of Education and the Institute of education, The University of the South Pacific, Suva.Google Scholar
  94. Thomas, S. (2014). Blue carbon: Knowledge gaps, critical issues, and novel approaches. Ecological Economics 107: 22–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Troche-Souza, C., Rodríguez-Zúñiga, M. T., Velázquez-Salazar, S., Valderrama-Landeros, L., Villeda-Chávez, E., Alcántara-Maya, A., Vázquez-Balderas, B., Cruz-López, M. I., and Ressl, R. (2016). Manglares de México: Extensión, Distribución y Monitoreo (1970/1980—2015). Ciudad de Mexico, México.Google Scholar
  96. Twilley, R. R., and Rivera-Monroy, V. H. (2005). Developing performance measures of mangrove wetlands using simulation models of hydrology, nutrient biogeochemistry, and community dynamics. Journal of Coastal Research: 79–93.Google Scholar
  97. Vaca, R. A., Golicher, D. J., Cayuela, L., Hewson, J., and Steininger, M. (2012). Evidence of incipient Forest transition in southern Mexico. PLoS One 7(8): e42309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Valderrama-Landeros, L. H., Rodríguez-Zúñiga, M. T., Troche-Souza, C., Velázquez-Salazar, S., Villeda-Chávez, E., Alcántara-Maya, J. A., Vázquez-Balderas, B., Cruz-López, M. I., and Ressl, R. (2017). Manglares de México: Actualización y Exploración de los Datos del Sistema de Monitoreo 1970/1980–2015, Ciudad de México, México.Google Scholar
  99. Valderrama, L., Troche, C., Rodriguez, M. T., Marquez, D., Vázquez, B., Velázquez, S., Vázquez, A., Cruz, M. I., and Ressl, R. (2014). Evaluation of mangrove cover changes in Mexico during the 1970–2005 period. Wetlands 34(4): 747–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Valiela, I., Bowen, J. L., and York, J. K. (2001). Mangrove forests: One of the World's threatened major tropical environments. BioScience 51(10): 807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Van Lavieren, H., Spalding, M., Alongi, D. M., Kainuma, M., Clüsener-Godt, M., and Adeel, Z. (2012). Securing the future of mangroves. A policy brief, UNU-INWEH, UNESCO MAB with ISME, ITTO, FAO, UNEP WCMC and TNC.Google Scholar
  102. Walters, B. B., Rönnbäck, P., Kovacs, J. M., Crona, B., Hussain, S. A., Badola, R., Primavera, J. H., Barbier, E., and Dahdouh-Guebas, F. (2008). Ethnobiology, socio-economics and Management of Mangrove Forests: A review. Aquatic Botany 89(2): 220–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wylie, L., Sutton-Grier, A. E., and Moore, A. (2016). Keys to successful blue carbon projects: Lessons learned from global case studies. Marine Policy 65: 76–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Xue, X., Hong, H., and Charles, A. T. (2004). Cumulative environmental impacts and integrated coastal management: The case of Xiamen, China. Journal of Environmental Management 71(3): 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yáñez-Arancibia, A., Day, J. W., Twilley, R. R., and Day, R. H. (2014). Manglares: Ecosistema Centinela Frente al Cambio Climático, Golfo De México. Madera y Bosques 20: 39–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zamora-Tovar, C., Jiménez-Pérez, J. L., Cardona-Estrada, A., González-Romo, C. E., Garza-Torres, H. A., Herrera-Patiño, G., and Sánchez-Ramos, G. (2011). Participación Comunitaria en la Restauración Ecológica de la Laguna Madre, Tamaulipas. CienciaUAT 6: 38–47.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Ciencias de la SustentabilidadEl Colegio de la Frontera SurLermaMexico
  2. 2.Universidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoTolucaMexico
  3. 3.División Académica de Ciencias AgropecuariasUniversidad Juárez Autónoma de TabascoVillahermosaMexico
  4. 4.Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones y Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y DesarrolloInstituto Politécnico NacionalCiudad de MéxicoMexico

Personalised recommendations