Advertisement

Alien Bamboos in South Africa: a Socio-Historical Perspective

  • Susan Canavan
  • David M. Richardson
  • Johannes J. Le Roux
  • John R. U. Wilson
Article
  • 79 Downloads

Abstract

Changes in fashions and economic imperatives underlying plant introductions have a profound influence on the movement of species around the world. Using bamboo introductions into South Africa as a case-study, we explore these issues by assessing historical trends through a literature review and determining current human perceptions based on a questionnaire distributed via social media. We identify five main phases of introduction and distribution of bamboos in South Africa associated with: (1) the intra-African migration of people; (2) the arrival of Europeans; (3) growth of the agricultural and forestry sectors; (4) small-scale domestic use by landowners; and (5) the rise of the “green economy.” Our narrative is built around 27 alien bamboo species (taxa mentioned in the literature that could be linked to currently accepted nomenclature). Bamboos were among the first plants introduced to South Africa by European settlers, and they are still used and valued by many landowners, although on a small-scale. Bamboos now create conflicts of interest because they are both valued and perceived to be weeds (the latter particularly by people who do not utilise them).

Keywords

Alien species Biological invasions Conflicts of interest Human usage Perceptions South Africa 

Notes

Acknowledgements

SC thanks the following people for their help and guidance: Joubert Roux, Adrian Sutton, Felix Sorour, Brett Bennett, Selvan Naidoo, Ingrid Nanni, Reshnee Lalla, Nolwethu Jubase. We would also like to thank all the questionnaire participants for taking the time to contribute to the study, and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (grants 85412 to JRUW, 626 85417 to DMR, 91117 to JJLR); and the South African National Department of Environment Affairs through its funding of the South African National Biodiversity Institute and the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Invasion Biology.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval and Informed Consent

Ethical clearance to conduct the research was obtained from the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC: REC-050411-032) at Stellenbosch University (SU-HSD-004196). All ethical standards were adhered to. The relevant local authorities were approached for permission to conduct the research and formal, free, prior and informed consent was obtained from all participants. Anonymity was assured.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10745_2018_41_MOESM1_ESM.docx (214 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 214 kb)

References

  1. Atkinson, D. (2014). Rural-urban linkages: South Africa case study. Territorial Cohesion for Development Program, Rimisp, Santiago.Google Scholar
  2. Beinart, W., and Middleton, K. (2004). Plant transfers in historical perspective: A review article. Environment and History 10: 3–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bekele-Tesemma, A. (2007). Useful Trees and Shrubs for Ethiopia: Identification, Propagation and Management for 17 Agroclimatic Zones, RELMA in ICRAF Project, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, B. M. (2011). Naturalising Australian trees in South Africa: Climate, exotics and experimentation. Journal of Southern African Studies 37: 265–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett, B. M., and van Sittert L. (2019). Historicising perceptions and the national management framework for invasive alien plants in South Africa. Journal of Environmental Management 229: 174-181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blacking, J. (1962). Musical expeditions of the Venda. African Music 3: 54–78.Google Scholar
  7. Blacking, J. (1969). Songs, dances, mimes and symbolism of Venda girls' initiation schools. African Studies 28: 215–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burkhill, H. M. (1994). The useful plants of west tropical Africa. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, UK.Google Scholar
  9. Canavan, S., Richardson, D. M., Visser, V., Roux, J. J. L., Vorontsova, M. S., and Wilson, J. R. U. (2017). The global distribution of bamboos: assessing correlates of introduction and invasion. AoB PLANTS:plw078.Google Scholar
  10. Canavan, S., Kumschick, S., Le Roux, J. J., Richardson, D. M., and Wilson, J. R. U. (2019). Does origin determine environmental impacts? Not for bamboos. Plants, People, Planet.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp3.5.
  11. Carruthers, J., Robin, L., Hattingh, J. P., Kull, C. A., Rangan, H., and van Wilgen, B. W. (2011). A native at home and abroad: The history, politics, ethics and aesthetics of acacias. Diversity and Distributions 17: 810–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Claassens, H., and Pretorius, F. (2004). Die geskiedenis van Boerekos 1652-1806. South African Journal of Cultural History 18: 110–126.Google Scholar
  13. Clayton, W. D., and Renvoize, S. A. (1986). Genera graminum. Grasses of the World. 13. Kew bulletin additional series.Google Scholar
  14. Cleghorne, W. S. H. (1931). Soil erosion and reclamation. Farming in South Africa 6: 379–381.Google Scholar
  15. Clementz, C. (1931). Farmers who are overcoming soil Erosion. Farming in South Africa 6: 164–181.Google Scholar
  16. Crosby, A. W. (1972). The Columbian exchange: Biological and cultural consequences of 1492, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport.Google Scholar
  17. Davies, G. H. (1908). Afforestation. Natal Agricultural Journal 11: 623–626.Google Scholar
  18. Davies, R. A. (1910). The horticultural section: South African show of maize and citrus fruits. Transvaal Agricultural Journal 8: 641–644.Google Scholar
  19. Department of Environmental Affairs. (2007). South Africa's Green Economy Strategy. Department of Environmental Affairs, Enviropedia.Google Scholar
  20. Diamond, J. (1997). Guns, germs, and steel: The fates of human societies, W. W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  21. du Plessis, S. J. (1939). Bacterial blight in vines. Farming in South Africa 14.Google Scholar
  22. Ergates (1902). The bamboo and its uses. The Natal Agricultural Journal 5: 179–189.Google Scholar
  23. Ergates (1906). Coast fruit: The bamboo and its USes. Natal Agricultural Journal 9: 1171–1177.Google Scholar
  24. Esselen, D. J. (1930). The litchi. Farming in south. Africa 5: 543–544.Google Scholar
  25. Exchange Reviews (1908). Exchange reviews. Natal Agricultural Journal 11: 210–215.Google Scholar
  26. Fletcher, T. (1925). Fire-cured Tabacco. The Sun & Agricultural Journal of S.A. 16: 1082–1090.Google Scholar
  27. Fukushima, K., Usui, N., Ogawa, R., and Tokuchi, N. (2014). Impacts of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) invasion on dry matter and carbon and nitrogen stocks in a broad-leaved secondary forest located in Kyoto, western Japan. Plant Species Biology 30: 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Glen, H. F. (2002). Cultivated plants of southern Africa: Botanical names, common names, origins, literature. Jacana Media.Google Scholar
  29. Gupta, A. K. (2004). Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration. Current Science 87: 54–59.Google Scholar
  30. Harris, A., Thieberger, N., and Barwick, L. (2015). Research, records and responsibility: Ten years of PARADISEC, University Press, Sydney.Google Scholar
  31. Henderson, L. (2007). Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: A summary based on the southern African plant invaders atlas (SAPIA). Bothalia 37: 215–248.Google Scholar
  32. Kearney, J. A. 1999. Indians and whites in the multicultural world of Rooke's Ratoons. English in Africa 26: 89–112.Google Scholar
  33. Kearney, B. 2002. Bamboo Square: A documentary narrative of the 'Indian and Native Cantonment' at the the Point, 1873 to 1903. Journal of Natal and Zulu History 20: 29–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kolb, P. (1726). Naaukeurige en uitvoerige beschryving van kaap de Goede Hoop; behelzende een zeer omstandig verhaal van den tegenwoordigen toestant van dat vermaarde gewest, B. Lakemann, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  35. Kull, C. A., Shackleton, C. M., Cunningham, P. J., Ducatillon, C., Dufour-Dror, J. M., Esler Karen, J., Friday, J. B., Gouveia, A. C., Griffin, A. R., Marchante, E., Midgley, S. J., Pauchard, A., Rangan, H., Richardson, D. M., Rinaudo, T., Tassin, J., Urgenson, L. S., von Maltitz, G. P., Zenni Rafael, D., and Zylstra, M. J. (2011). Adoption, use and perception of Australian acacias around the world. Diversity and Distributions 17: 822–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Legat, C. E. (1905). On Bamboos. Transvaal Agricultural Journal: The Forestry Section 4: 97–100.Google Scholar
  37. Leibbrandt, H. C. V. (1900). Precis of the archives of the Cape of Good Hope, letters Despatched from the cape, 1652–1662, to which are added land grants, attestations journal of voyage to Tristan da Cunha, names of freemen etc.Google Scholar
  38. Li, Z.-h., and Kobayashi, M. (2004). Plantation future of bamboo in China. Journal of Forestry Research 15: 233–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liengme, C. A. (1983). A survey of ethnobotanical research in southern Africa. Bothalia 14: 621–629.Google Scholar
  40. Lieurance, D., Cooper, A., Young, A. L., Gordon, D. R., and Flory, L. S. (2018). Running bamboo species pose a greater invasion risk than clumping bamboo species in the continental United States. Journal for Nature Conservation 43: 39–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lindemann-Matthies, P. (2016). Beasts or beauties? Laypersons’ perception of invasive alien plant species in Switzerland and attitudes towards their management. NeoBiota 29: 15–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Magwede, K., van Wyk B. E., and van Wyk A. E. (2018). An inventory of Vhavenḓa useful plants. South African Journal of Botany. doi: 10.1016/j.sajb.2017.12.013Google Scholar
  43. Makita, A. (1998). The significance of the mode of clonal growth in the life history of bamboos. Plant Species Biology 13: 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McCracken, D. P. (1986). William Keit and the Durban botanic garden. Bothalia 16: 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mothapo, M. G. (2017). Economic evaluation of bamboo cultivation and potential yield on rehabilitated mine sites. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.Google Scholar
  46. Nelson, A. (2004). Population Density for Africa in 2000.in U. G. S. Falls, editor., UNEP/GRID Sioux Falls, SD, USA.Google Scholar
  47. Netshlungani, M. T., van Wyk, E. N., and Linger, A. E. (1981). Thathe holy forest of the Vhavenda. Veld & Flora 67: 51.Google Scholar
  48. Novoa, A., Kaplan, H., Wilson, J. R., and Richardson, D. M. (2016). Resolving a prickly situation: Involving stakeholders in invasive cactus management in South Africa. Environmental Management 57: 998–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Novoa, A., Shackleton, R., Canavan, S., Cybele, C., Davies, S. J., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Fried, J., Gaertner, M., Geerts, S., and Griffiths, C. L. (2018). A framework for engaging stakeholders on the management of alien species. Journal of Environmental Management 205: 286–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Olivier, H. J. A. (1938). Manipulation of ostrich feathers. Farming in South Africa 13: 121.Google Scholar
  51. Pooley, S. (2009). Jan van Riebeeck as pioneering explorer and conservator of natural resources at the Cape of Good Hope (1652-62). Environment and History 15: 3–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. R Core Team (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R- Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.Google Scholar
  53. Reid, A. (1910). Experiment farm reports : central experiment farm. Natal Agricultural Journal 14: 327–333.Google Scholar
  54. Sawer (1909). Division of agriculture and forestry notices: Report for October, 1909. Natal Agricultural Journal 13: 140–141.Google Scholar
  55. Scheba, A., Blanchard R., and Mayeki S. (2017). Bamboo for green development? The opportunities and challenges of commercialising bamboo in South Africa. Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC).Google Scholar
  56. Shackleton, C. M., McGarry, D., Fourie, S., Gambiza, J., Shackleton, S. E., and Fabricius, C. (2007). Assessing the effects of invasive alien species on rural livelihoods: Case examples and a framework from South Africa. Human Ecology 35: 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shackleton, R. T., Le Maitre, D. C., and Richardson, D. M. (2015). Stakeholder perceptions and practices regarding Prosopis (mesquite) invasions and management in South Africa. Ambio 44: 569–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shackleton, R. T., Richardson, D. M., Shackleton, C. M., Bennett, B., Crowley, S. L., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Estévez, R. A., Fischer, A., Kueffer, C., Kull, C. A., Marchante, E., Novoa, A., Potgieter, L. J., Vaas, J., Vaz, A. S., and Larson, B. M. H. (2018). Explaining people's perceptions of invasive alien species: A conceptual framework. Journal of Environmental Management 229:88–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shackleton, R. T., Shackleton, C. M., and Kull, C. A. (2019). The role of invasive alien species in shaping local livelihoods and human well-being: A review. Journal of Environmental Management 229:145–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Simpson, C. B. (1904). Preventive and remedial measures against mosquitoes. Transvaal Agricultural Journal 2: 354–357.Google Scholar
  61. Singh, O. (2008). Bamboo for sustainable livelihood in India. Indian Forester 134: 1193–1198.Google Scholar
  62. Soderstrom, T. R., and Zuloaga, F. O. (1989). A revision of the genus Olyra and the new segregate genus Parodiolyra (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Olyreae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany (69): 1–79.Google Scholar
  63. Spilhaus, M. W. (1966). They Planted the Cape. Hisotoria 11.Google Scholar
  64. Starfinger, U., Kowarik, I., Rode, M., and Schepker, H. (2003). From desirable ornamental plant to pest to accepted addition to the flora? – The perception of an alien tree species through the centuries. Biological Invasions 5: 323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Statistics South Africa (2003). Census 2001: Investigation into appropriate definitions of urban and rural areas for South Africa: Discussion document, Statistics South Africa, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  66. Stayt, H. A., and Hoernle, A. W. (1931). The Bavenda, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  67. Suzuki, S. (1978). Index to Japanese Bambusaceae, Gakken, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  68. Takano, K. T., Hibino, K., Numata, A., Oguro, M., Aiba, M., Shiogama, H., Takayabu, I., and Nakashizuka, T. (2017). Detecting latitudinal and altitudinal expansion of invasive bamboo Phyllostachys edulis and Phyllostachys bambusoides (Poaceae) in Japan to project potential habitats under 1.5 C–4.0 C global warming. Ecology and Evolution 7: 9848–9859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Taylor, L. E. (1910). Forestry section: Dendrocalamus strictus- the male bamboo. Transvaal Agricultural Journal 8: 633–634.Google Scholar
  70. Terry, G. (1927). Winter rhubarb. Farming in South Africa 2: 115.Google Scholar
  71. Thunberg, C. P. (1795). Travels in Europe, Africa and Asia, London.Google Scholar
  72. Townsend, R. (2013). Bamboos at Kew. Pages 51-53 in I international symposium on genetic resources of bamboos and palms and III international symposium on ornamental palms. ISHS. Acta Horticulturae 1003.Google Scholar
  73. Tracey, A., and Gumboreshumba, L. (2013). Transcribing the Venda tshikona reedpipe dance. African Music: Journal of the International Library of African Music 9:25–39.Google Scholar
  74. Udo, N., Darrot, C., and Atlan, A. (2018). From useful to invasive, the status of gorse on Reunion Island. Journal of Environmental Management 229:166–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vahed, G. (2009). Indian Muslims in South Africa: continuity, change and disjuncture. Africa's Islamic Experience. Sterling Publishers Pvt, UK.Google Scholar
  76. van Wilgen, B. W., and Richardson, D. M. (2012). Three centuries of managing introduced conifers in South Africa: Benefits, impacts, changing perceptions and conflict resolution. Journal of Environmental Management 106: 56–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. van Wilgen, B. W., and Richardson, D. M. (2014). Challenges and trade-offs in the management of invasive alien trees. Biological Invasions 16: 721–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Visser, V., Wilson, J. R. U., Canavan, K., Canavan, S., Fish, L., Le Maitre, D., Nanni, I., Mashau, C., O'Connor, T. G., Ivey, P., Kumschick, S., and Richardson, D. M. (2017). Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management. Bothalia 47(2): a2169.  https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v47i2.2169.
  79. Wu, C., Mo, Q., Wang, H., Zhang, Z., Huang, G., Ye, Q., Zou, Q., Kong, F., Liu, Y., and Wang, G. G. (2018). Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carriere) J. Houzeau) invasion affects soil phosphorus dynamics in adjacent coniferous forests in subtropical China. Annals of Forest Science 75.Google Scholar
  80. Zengeya, T., Ivey, I., Woodford, D. J., Weyl, O., Novoa, A., Shackleton, R. D., and van Wilgen, B. (2017). Managing conflict-generating invasive species in South Africa: Challenges and trade-offs. Bothalia a2160: 47.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and ZoologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa
  2. 2.South African National Biodiversity Institute, Kirstenbosch Research CentreClaremontSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations