Special Section Introduction: Socioecological Disequilibrium in the Circumpolar North
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Despite the evident challenges posed by arctic environments past and present, and despite the widespread acknowledgement that human population histories in the Arctic have historically been quite dynamic, it is often assumed that traditional pre-colonial populations were in perfect equilibrium with their environment, that they were perfectly adapted to their local environmental conditions. This adaptationist assumption is strongly challenged by recent research in ecology that has shown that many high-latitude ecological communities are in fact far from equilibrium with environmental conditions. Here we briefly introduce the notion of disequilibrium and the papers making up this special section. Ranging from the European Palearctic to the predicaments faced by contemporary populations in the circumpolar North, this collection presents a solid comparative evidence base for this new perspective. Together, these papers underline that adaptation – defined classically as the outcome of selection matching a particular feature or behaviour to the social or natural environment – cannot be assumed but needs to be empirically demonstrated. The papers also offer numerous qualitative and quantitative avenues for how to conduct such empirical investigations.
KeywordsArctic Circumpolar north Disequilibrium Historical ecology Local and traditional ecological knowledge Indigenous knowledge
The conference that generated the papers for this special section of Human Ecology was funded and supported by Aarhus University’s Arctic Research Centre.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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