Fish, Trade and Food Security: Moving beyond ‘Availability’ Discourse in Marine Conservation
- 678 Downloads
The goal of food security increasingly serves as an objective and justification for marine conservation in the global south. In the marine conservation literature this potential link is seldom based upon detailed analysis of the socioeconomic pathways between fish and food security, is often based on limited assumptions about increasing the availability of fish stocks, and downplays the role of trade. Yet, the relationship between fish and food security is multi-faceted and complex, with various local contextual factors that mediate between fish and food security. We use data from interviews and food security assessment methods to examine the relationship between fish and food security among fishing households in San Vicente, Palawan province, Philippines. We highlight the local role of income and trade, emphasising the sale of fish to purchase food not easily accessible for fishers, particularly staples. In particular, we show that because rice is the primary staple of food security for these households, fish must be traded with the intent of buying rice. Trade is therefore central to household food security. We argue that the relationship between fish and food security must be considered in greater depth if marine conservation is to engage with food security as an objective.
KeywordsFood security Fisheries Livelihood Marine conservation Philippines
We thank the San Vicente municipal government for their support of this research, the household interviewees for their time, Alex Felipe, Mark Tabangay, Reziel Camacho, Precious Joy Latras, Mark Buncag and Engr. Maria Rosario Aynon A. Gonzales for logistical and fieldwork assistance, Simon Foale for helpful discussions on the topic of this paper, and three anonymous reviewers for constructive reviews. We also thank other faculty and staff members from the Palawan State University for their inputs to the project.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This research was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of James Cook University (Human Ethics Approval Number H5517).
Funding for this research was provided by the Australian Research Council Discovery Program (Grant Number DP140101055) and a Society in Science – Branco Weiss Fellowship (M. Fabinyi).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Allison E. H. (2011). Aquaculture, fisheries, poverty and food security. Working paper 2011–2065, WorldFish Center, Penang.Google Scholar
- Béné C., Arthur R., Norbury H., Allison E. H., Beveridge M., Bush S., Campling L., Leschen W., Little D., Squires D., Thilsted S. H., Troell M., and Williams M. (2016). Contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to food security and poverty reduction: assessing the current evidence. World Development 79: 177–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coates J., Swindale A., and Bilinsky P. (2007). Household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) for measurement of food access: indicator guide. Version 3, Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Dove M. D. (2011). The banana tree at the gate: a history of marginal peoples and global Markets in Borneo, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
- Dressler W. H. (2009). Old thoughts in new ideas: state conservation measures, livelihood and development on Palawan Island, the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila University Press, Quezon City.Google Scholar
- Dumont J.-P. (1992). Visayan vignettes: ethnographic traces of a Philippine Island, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
- Eder J. F. (2008). Migrants to the coasts: livelihood, resource management, and global change in the Philippines, Cengage Learning, Wadsworth.Google Scholar
- Eder J. F., and Fernandez J. O. (eds.) (1996). Palawan at the crossroads: development and the environment on a Philippine frontier, Ateneo de Manila University Press, Quezon City.Google Scholar
- Eriksson H., Adhuri D. S., Adrianto L., Andrew N. L., Apriliani T., Daw T., Evans L., Garces L., Kamanyi E., Mwaipopo R., Purnomo A. H., Sulu R. J., and Beare D. J. (2016). An ecosystem approach to small-scale fisheries through participatory diagnosis in four tropical countries. Global Environmental Change 36: 56–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fabinyi M. (2012). Fishing for fairness: poverty, morality and marine resource regulation in the Philippines, ANU Press, Canberra.Google Scholar
- Fiorella K. J., Hickey M. D., Salmen C. R., Nagata J. M., Mattah B., Magerenge R., Cohen C. R., Bukusi E. A., Brashares J. S., and Fernald L. H. (2014). Fishing for food? Analyzing links between fishing livelihoods and food security around Lake Victoria, Kenya. Food Security 6: 851–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Firth R. (1966). Malay fishermen: their peasant economy, Second edn., W.W. Norton and Company, New York.Google Scholar
- Foale S. J., and Macintyre M. (2005). Green fantasies: photographic representations of biodiversity and ecotourism in the western Pacific. Journal of Political Economy 12: 1–22. http://jpe.library.arizona.edu/volume_12/FoaleMacintyre2005.pdf
- Geheb, K., Kalloch, S., Medard, M., Nyapendi, A-T., Lwenya, C., and Kyangwa, M. (2008). Nile perch and the hungry of Lake Victoria: Gender, status and food in an East African fishery. Food Policy 33: 85–98.Google Scholar
- High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) (2014). Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture for food security and nutrition, A report by the high level panel of experts on food security and nutrition of the committee on world food security, Rome.Google Scholar
- Jackson, J. B. C., Kirby, M. X., Berger, W. H., Bjorndal, K. A., Botsford, L. W., Bourque, B. J., Bradbury, R. H., et al. (2001). Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems. Science 291(5530): 629–638.Google Scholar
- Janowski M. (2007). Introduction. In Janowski M., and Kerlogue F. (eds.), Kinship and food in Southeast Asia, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Press, Copenhagen, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar
- Lee R. P. (2013). The politics of international Agri-food policy: discourses of trade-oriented food security and food sovereignty. Environmental Pollution 22(2): 216–234.Google Scholar
- Maxwell D., Coates J., and Vaitla B. (2013). How do different indicators of household food security compare? Empirical evidence from Tigray, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, Medford.Google Scholar
- Mintz S. W. (1994). Eating and being: what food means. In Harriss-White B., and Hoffenberg R. (eds.), Food – multidisciplinary perspectives, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
- MPA Support Network. (2014). Philippine MPA Database. Retrieved February 15, 2016 from http://www.mpa.msi.upd.edu.ph.
- Palawan State University (PSU) (2011). Strengthening governance and sustainability of small-scale fisheries management in the Philippines: an ecosystem based fisheries management approach (phase 2). Region 4B: San Vicente, Palawan component. Technical report, Palawan State University, Puerto Princesa City.Google Scholar
- Pauly D., Watson R., and Alder J. (2005). Global trends in world fisheries: impacts on marine ecosystems and food security. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360: 5–12.Google Scholar
- Philippine Statistics Authority. (2015). Poverty incidence among Filipinos registered at 25.8%, as of first semester of 2014 — PSA. Press release, accessed online on 29/7/2015 at http://www.nscb.gov.ph/pressreleases/2015/PSA-20150306-SS2-01_poverty.asp.
- Russell S. D., and Alexander R. T. (2000). Of beggars and thieves: customary sharing of the catch and informal sanctions in a Philippine fishery. In Durrenberger E. P., and King T. D. (eds.), State and Community in Fisheries Management: power, policy and practice, Westport, Bergin & Garvey.Google Scholar
- Sadovy Y., Craig, M. T., Bertoncini, A. A., Carpenter, K. E., Cheung, W. W. L., Choat, J. H., Cornish, A. S., et al. (2013). Fishing Groupers Towards Extinction: a Global Assessment of Threats and Extinction Risks in a Billion Dollar Fishery. Fish and Fisheries 14(2): 119–136.Google Scholar
- Scheper-Hughes N. (1992). Death without weeping: the violence of everyday life in Brazil, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Sen A. (1982). Poverty and famines: an essay on entitlement and deprivation, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
- Swindale A., and Bilinsky P. (2006). Household dietary diversity score (HDDS) for measurement of household food access: indicator guide (v.2), FHI 360/FANTA, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Via Campesina. (1996). The right to produce and access to land. Voice of the Turtle. Accessed online 17/2/2016 at: www.acordinternational.org/silo/files/decfoodsov1996.pdf
- Wilk R. (2006). Fast food/ slow food: the cultural economy of the global food system, Altamira Press, Lanham.Google Scholar
- World Food Programme. (2015). What is food security? Accessed online 2/9/2015 at: https://www.wfp.org/node/359289.