Advertisement

Human Ecology

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 425–438 | Cite as

Market Economy vs. Risk Management: How Do Nomadic Pastoralists Respond to Increasing Meat Prices?

  • Marius Warg Næss
  • Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen
Article

Abstract

A growing body of evidence shows that for nomadic pastoralists herd accumulation is an efficient strategy for buffering environmental variation and maximizes long-term survival. Pastoralists may thus view livestock as investments, or ‘banks on the hoof,’ that work as insurance against unpredictable environmental conditions. This perspective differs from strict market logic where producers are expected to follow the ‘law of supply,’ i.e., that when the price of a product rises suppliers should be willing to offer more of the product for sale. In terms of insurance, increased meat prices may make it possible for pastoralists to slaughter fewer animals for the same financial gain as when prices are low and subsequently convert unslaughtered animals to herd capital. This study investigates to what degree Saami reindeer herders follow a market driven or risk management logic by investigating how slaughter strategies are influenced by increasing meat prices. While slaughter strategies vary regionally in Norway, our results indicate that reindeer herders follow neither risk nor market considerations alone, but rather a combination, and support the general hypothesis that slaughter strategies entail balancing the benefits of increasing herd size against economic gain through meat sales. This has important management implications since current management schemes aiming to reduce the number of reindeer by stimulating slaughter rates through economic subsidies is based on the assumption that herders are meat producers motivated by monetary gains alone.

Keywords

Risk management Reindeer husbandry Nomadic pastoralism Norway 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Funding for this study was provided by the Research Council of Norway (grant number: 204174 and 240280/F10). We thank the Reindeer Husbandry Administration for access to data and Torkild Tveraa for preparing the data prior to the statistical analyses. We would also like to thank two anonymous reviewers whose comments improved the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10745_2015_9758_MOESM1_ESM.doc (304 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 304 kb)

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., and West, S. G. (1991). Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Sage, Newbury Park, Calif.Google Scholar
  2. Albon, S. D., Mitchell, B., and Staines, B. W. (1983). Fertility and Body-Weight in Female Red Deer - A Density-Dependent Relationship. Journal of Animal Ecology 52(3): 969–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, D. R. (2008). Model Based Inference in the Life Sciences: A Primer on Evidence. Springer Science, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2001). Totalregnskap for Reindriftsnæringen. Reindriftsforvaltningen, Alta, Norway, p. 145.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (2004). Totalregnskap for Reindriftsnæringen. Reindriftsforvaltningen, Alta, Norway, p. 143.Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous (2005a). “St.prp. nr. 63: Om reindriftsavtalen 2005/2006, om dekning av kostnader vedrørende radioaktivitet i reinkjøtt, og om endringer i statsbudsjettet for 2005 m.m.,” pp. 36: Det Kongelige Landbruks- og MatdepartementGoogle Scholar
  7. Anonymous (2005b). Totalregnskap for Reindriftsnæringen. Reindriftsforvaltningen, Alta, Norway, p. 141.Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous (2007). Reindrift. The Directorate for Nature Management, Norway http://www.dirnat.no/content.ap?thisId=1009878 Accessed: 08. Juliy 2009.
  9. Anonymous (2008a). Ressursregnskap for Reindriftsnæringen. Reindriftsforvaltningen, Alta, Norway, p. 164.Google Scholar
  10. Anonymous (2008b). Totalregnskap for Reindriftsnæringen. Reindriftsforvaltningen, Alta, Norway, p. 126.Google Scholar
  11. Anonymous (2010). Totalregnskap for Reindriftsnæringen. Reindriftsforvaltningen, Alta, Norway, p. 132.Google Scholar
  12. Anonymous (2013). Ressursregnskap for Reindriftsnæringen. Reindriftsforvaltningen, Alta, Norway, p. 105.Google Scholar
  13. Barrett, C. B., McPeak, J. G., Luseno, W., Little, P. D., Osterloh, S. H., Mahmoud, H., and Gebru, G. (2004). “Pastoralist Livestock Marketing Behavior in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia: An Analysis of Constraints Limiting Off-take Rates,” in Economics Faculty Scholarship.Google Scholar
  14. Behnke, R. H. (1987). Cattle Accumulation and the Commercialization of the Traditional Livestock Industry in Botswana. Agricultural Systems 24(1): 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Behnke, R. H. (2008). The Economic Contribution of Pastoralism: Case Studies from the Horn of Africa and Southern Africa. Nomadic Peoples 12(1): 45–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berg, B. Å. (2008). Utviklingen av reindriften i nordre Nordland 1750–2000. In Evjen, B., and Hansen, L. I. (eds.), Nordlands kulturelle mangfold: etniske relasjoner i historisk perspektiv. Pax, Oslo, pp. 151–191.Google Scholar
  17. Bjørklund, I. (1990). Sami Reindeer Pastoralism as an Indigenous Resource Management System in Northern Norway: A Contribution to the Common Property Debate. Development and Change 21: 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Borgerhoff Mulder, M., and Sellen, D. W. (1994). Pastoralist decision making: A behavioral ecological perspective. In Fratkin, E., Galvin, K. A., and Roth, E. A. (eds.), African Pastoralist Systems: An Integrated Approach. Boulder, London, pp. 205–229.Google Scholar
  19. Bostedt, G. (2001). Reindeer husbandry, the Swedish market for reindeer meat, and the Chernobyl effects. Agricultural Economics 26(3): 217–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burnham, K. P., and Anderson, D. R. (2002). Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. Springer, Inc., New York, USA.Google Scholar
  21. Bårdsen, B.-J. (2009). Risk sensitive Reproductive Strategies: The Effect of Environmental Unpredictability. Philosophiae Doctor, University of Tromsø, Tromsø.Google Scholar
  22. Bårdsen, B.-J., Henden, J.-A., Fauchald, P., Tveraa, T., and Stien, A. (2011). Plastic Reproductive Allocation as a Buffer Against Environmental Stochasticity – Linking Life History and Population Dynamics to Climate. Oikos 20: 245–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bårdsen, B.-J., Næss, M. W., Tveraa, T., Fauchald, P., and Langeland, K. (2014). Risk-Sensitive Reproductive Allocation: Fitness Consequences: of Body Mass Losses in Two Contrasting Environments. Ecology and Evolution 4(7): 1030–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bårdsen, B.-J., and Tveraa, T. (2012). Density Dependence vs. Density Independence – Linking Reproductive Allocation to Population Abundance and Vegetation Greenness. Journal of Animal Ecology 81(2): 364–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bårdsen, B.-J., Tveraa, T., Fauchald, P., and Langeland, K. (2010). Observational Evidence of a Risk Sensitive Reproductive Allocation in a Long-Lived Mammal. Oecologia 162: 627–639.Google Scholar
  26. Clutton-Brock, T. H., Stevenson, I. R., Marrow, P., MacColl, A. D., Houston, A. I., and McNamara, J. M. (1996). Population Fluctuations, Reproductive Costs and Life-History Tactics in Female Soay Sheep. Journal of Animal Ecology 65(6): 675–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., and Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 3rd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J.Google Scholar
  28. Frank, R. H. (2006). Microeconomics and Behavior, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston, Mass.Google Scholar
  29. Fratkin, E., and Roth, E. A. (1990). Drought and Economic Differentiation Among Ariaal Pastoralists of Kenya. Human Ecology 18(4): 385–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hatfield, R., and Davies, J. (2006). Global Review of the Economics of Pastoralism. The World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism. IUCN, Nairobi, p. 44.Google Scholar
  31. Hausner, V. H., Fauchald, P., Tveraa, T., Pedersen, E., Jernsletten, J.-L. L., UIvevadet, B., Ims, R. A., Yoccoz, N., and Bråthen, K. A. (2011). The Ghost of Development Past: the Impact of Economic Security Policies on Saami Pastoral Ecosystems. Ecology and Society 16(3): 4 doi: 10.5751/ES-04193-160304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Herskovits, M. J. (1926). The Cattle Complex in East Africa. American Anthropologist 28(4): 633–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Johannesen, A. B., and Skonhoft, A. (2011). Livestock as Insurance and Social Status: Evidence from Reindeer Herding in Norway. Environmental & Resource Economics 48(4): 679–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Khazanov, A. M. (1994). Nomads and the Outside World, 2nd ed. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  35. Lamprey, H. (1983). Pastoralism yesterday and today: the overgrazing problem. In Bourliers, F. (ed.), Ecosystems of the World 13: Tropical Savannas. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  36. Larsson, C.-G., and Ballovara, M. (2013). Støtter tvangstiltak for å få ned reintallet. NRK. http://www.nrk.no/kanal/nrk_sapmi/1.10886044 Accessed:
  37. Luke, D. A. (2004). Multilevel Modeling. Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, Calif.Google Scholar
  38. Mace, R. (1993). Nomadic Pastoralists Adopt Subsistence Strategies that Maximise Long-Term Household Survival. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 33: 329–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mace, R. (1996). Biased Parental Investment and Reproductive Success in Gabbra Pastoralists. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 38(2): 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marx, E. (2006). The political economy of Middle Eastern and North African pastoral nomads. In Chatty, D. (ed.), Nomadic Societies in the Middle East and North Africa Entering the 21st Century. Brill, Leiden, pp. 78–97.Google Scholar
  41. McCabe, J. T. (2004). Cattle Bring Us to Our Enemies: Turkana Ecology, Politics, and Raiding in A Disequilibrium System. Human-Environment Interactions, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich.Google Scholar
  42. McPeak, J. (2005). Individual and Collective Rationality in Pastoral Production: Evidence from Northern Kenya. Human Ecology 33(2): 171–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Næss, M. W. (2012). Cooperative Pastoral Production: Reconceptualizing the Relationship between Pastoral Labor and Production. American Anthropologist 114(2): 309–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Næss, M. W. (2013). Climate Change, Risk Management and the End of Nomadic Pastoralism. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 20(2): 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Næss, M. W., and Bårdsen, B.-J. (2010). Environmental Stochasticity and Long-Term Livestock Viability-Herd-Accumulation as a Risk Reducing Strategy. Human Ecology 38(1): 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Næss, M. W., and Bårdsen, B.-J. (2013). Why Herd Size Matters – Mitigating the Effects of Livestock Crashes. Plos One 8(8), e70161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Næss, M. W., Bårdsen, B.-J., Fauchald, P., and Tveraa, T. (2010). Cooperative Pastoral Production - The Importance of Kinship. Evolution and Human Behavior 31(4): 246–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Næss, M. W., Bårdsen, B.-J., Pedersen, E., and Tveraa, T. (2011). Pastoral Herding Strategies And Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry. Human Ecology 39(4): 489–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Næss, M. W., Bårdsen, B.-J., and Tveraa, T. (2012). Wealth-dependent and interdependent strategies in the Saami reindeer husbandry, Norway. Evolution and Human Behavior 33(6): 696–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Næss, M. W., Fauchald, P., and Tveraa, T. (2009). Scale Dependency and the “Marginal” Value of Labor. Human Ecology 37(2): 193–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. OAGN. (2012). “Riksrevisjonens undersøkelse av bærekraftig bruk av reinbeiteressursene i Finnmark - Dokument 3:14 (2011–2012),” Office of the Auditor General of Norway, pp. 89: Office of the Auditor General of Norway.Google Scholar
  52. Paine, R. (2009). Camps of the tundra: politics through reindeer among Saami pastoralists. Instituttet for sammenlignende kulturforskning. Serie B, Skrifter, Instituttet for sammenlignende kulturforskning, Oslo.Google Scholar
  53. R Core Team. (2014). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
  54. Riseth, J. Å. (2003). Sami reindeer management in Norway: modernization challenges and conflicting strategies. reflections upon the co-management alternative. In Jentoft, S., Minde, H., and Nilsen, R. (eds.), Indigenous Peoples: Resource Management and Global Rights. Eburon Academic Publishers, Delft, Netherlands, pp. 229–247.Google Scholar
  55. Riseth, J. Å. (2006). Sàmi Reindeer Herd Managers: Why Do They Stay in a Low-Profit Business? British Food Journal 108(7): 541–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Riseth, J. Å., and Vatn, A. (2009). Modernization and Pasture Degradation: A Comparative Study of Two Sàmi Reindeer Pasture Regions in Norway. Land Economics 85(1): 87–106.Google Scholar
  57. Somby, L. I. (2013). Frykter sabotasje og intern strid. NRK. http://www.nrk.no/kanal/nrk_sapmi/1.10893374 Accessed:
  58. Sæther, B. E. (1997). Environmental Stochasticity and Population Dynamics of Large Herbivores: A Search for Mechanisms. Trends In Ecology & Evolution 12(4): 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Taylor, J. L. (2006). Negotiating the Grassland: The Policy of Pasture Enclosures and Contested Resource Use in Inner Mongolia. Human Organization 65(4): 374–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Templer, G., Swift, J., and Payne, P. (1993). The Changing Significance of Risk in the Mongolian Pastoral Economy. Nomadic Peoples 33: 105–122.Google Scholar
  61. Tveraa, T., Fauchald, P., Henaug, C., and Yoccoz, N. G. (2003). An Examination of a Compensatory Relationship Between Food Limitation and Predation in Semi-Domestic Reindeer. Oecologia 137(3): 370–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tveraa, T., Fauchald, P., Yoccoz, N. G., Ims, R. A., Aanes, R., and Høgda, K. A. (2007). What Regulate and Limit Reindeer Populations in Norway? Oikos 116(4): 706–715.Google Scholar
  63. Tveraa, T., Stien, A., Bårdsen, B.-J., and Fauchald, P. (2013). Population Densities, Vegetation Green-Up, and Plant Productivity: Impacts on Reproductive Success and Juvenile Body Mass in Reindeer. Plos One 8(2): e56450.Google Scholar
  64. Ulvevadet, B. (2012). The Governance of Sami Reindeer Husbandry in Norway: Institutional Challenges of Co-Management. Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, Tromsø.Google Scholar
  65. Ulvevadet, B., and Hausner, V. H. (2011). Incentives and Regulations to Reconcile Conservation and Development: Thirty Years of Governance of the Sami Pastoral Ecosystem in Finnmark, Norway. Journal of Environmental Management 92(10): 2794–2802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Vorren, Ø. (1978). Bosetning og ressursutnytting i ressursutvalgets mandatområde under veidekulturen og dens differensiering. Universitetsbiblioteket i Tromsø (in Norwegian), Tromsø.Google Scholar
  67. Wood, S. N. (2012) mgcv: GAMs with GCV/AIC/REML Smoothness Estimation and GAMMs by PQL. R Package Version 1.8.0.Google Scholar
  68. Zuur, A. F., Ieno, E. N., Walker, N., Saveliev, A. A., and Smith, G. M. (2009). Mixed Effects Models and Extensions in Ecology with R. Springer-Verlag New York, New York, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research (NIKU)TromsøNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Arctic Ecology Department, Fram CentreTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations