Human Ecology

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 379–394 | Cite as

The Study of Inuit Knowledge of Climate Change in Nunavik, Quebec: A Mixed Methods Approach

  • Alain Cuerrier
  • Nicolas D. Brunet
  • José Gérin-Lajoie
  • Ashleigh Downing
  • Esther Lévesque


We address first, the lack of documented indigenous knowledge of climate change in Nunavik, Quebec, regarding impacts on plants; and second, the frequent underutilization of indigenous knowledge in decision making and policy. Our study of three communities indicates that there are similarities and contrasts among and within different areas of Nunavik that point to both general and localized impacts of climate change on Arctic communities. General trends include changes in berry and mammal distribution. Local trends include lower snow abundance, changing wind patterns and varying levels of impacts on travel and traditional activities. To assess these patterns, we used a novel mixed methods approach combining a qualitative analysis followed by a quantitative study of resulting codes and relevant quotes from interviewees. We believe this methodology can provide important insights into translating traditional knowledge into quantitative evidence for environmental policy and decision-making.


Climate change Vegetation Traditional ecological knowledge Nunavik Quebec 



This study was made possible due to the support of IPY-CiCAT, ArcticNet and NSERC. The UQTR delivered the ethics permit: Climate change impacts on Canadian Tundra (CiCAT) (CER-07-124-07.18). We wish to thank the people who generously shared their knowledge. They have been great teachers. In Umiujaq, special thanks to Lizzie Crow, Sarah Crow, Kathleen Inukpuk, Martha Kasudluak, Willie Kumarluk, Siasi Naluktuk, Viola Napartuk, Zackiasie Niviaxie, Moses Novalinga, Joshua Sala, Julia Tookalak, Dinah Tookalook, Lizzie Tookoolook, Alice Tooktoo senior, Alice N. Tooktoo middle, Billy Tooktoo, Charlie Tooktoo, Lucassie Tooktoo, Clara Tumic, Ernest Tumic. In Kangiqsujuaq, great thanks to Mary Anogak, Nappaaluq Arnaituq, Jessica Arngak, Minnie Etidloie, Eva Ilimasaut, Lizzie Irniq, Mary Kiatainaq, Alasie Koneak, Juusipi Nappaaluk, Lukaasi Nappaaluk, Naalak Nappaaluk, Pitsiulaq Pinguatuq, Aqujaq Qisiiq, Inuluk Qisiiq, Mark Terliluk, Annie Terliluk, Maata Tuniq. In Kangiqsualujjuaq, many thanks to Eva Annanack, Betsie Annanack, Johnny George Annanack, Sarah Pasha Annanack, Willie Emudluk, Lucas A. Etok, Mary Etok, Tivi Etok, Susie Morgan. Special thanks also to the interpreters without whom this work would not have been possible: Mary Adams, Mary Annanack, Rita Annanack, Pasha Arngak, Annie Baron, Harriet Etok, Charlotte Morgan and Lucassie Tooktoo; to Bernard Jeune, Louis Houde (UQTR) and Stéphane Daigle (IRBV) for their help with statistics. We are also indebted to Alice N. Tooktoo and Charlie Tooktoo, Pierre Phillie and Jessica Arngak, Pasha Arngak, Molly Emudluk for providing lodging with a great sense of hospitality. Finally, thanks to Carl Geoffroy for his input into the graphs.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Prior informed consent was reached before any interview started as per the ethics permit: Climate change impacts on Canadian Tundra (CiCAT) (CER-07-124-07.18).


  1. Andrachuk, M. (2008). An Assessment of the Vulnerability of Tuktoyaktuk to Environmental and Socio-Economic Changes (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Guelph).Google Scholar
  2. Babbie, E. (2001). The Practice of Social Research, 9th ed. Wadsworth, Belmont.Google Scholar
  3. Barber, D. G., Lukovich, J. V., Keogak, J., Baryluk, S., Fortier, L., and Henry, G. (2008). The Changing Climate of the Arctic. Arctic 61: 7–26.Google Scholar
  4. Berkes, F. (2012). Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management, 3rd ed. Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Berkes, F., and Jolly, D. (2001). Adapting to Climate Change: Social-Ecological Resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic Community. Conservation Ecology 5(2): 18. [online] URL:
  6. Blok, D., Heijmans, M. M. P. D., Schaepman-Strub, G., Kononov, A. V., Maximov, T. C., and Berendse, F. (2010). Shrub expansion may reduce summer permafrost thaw in Siberian tundra. Global Change Biology 16: 1296–1305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blondeau, M., and Cayouette, J. (2002). La flore vasculaire de la baie Wakeham et du havre Douglas, détroit d’Hudson, Nunavik, Québec. Provancheria 28. 184.Google Scholar
  8. Bokhorst, S., Bjerke, J. W., Bowles, F. W., Melillo, J., Callaghan, T. V., and Phoenix, G. K. (2008). Impacts of Extreme Winter Warming in the Sub-Arctic: Growing Season Responses of Dwarf Shrub Heathland. Global Change Biology 14: 2603–2612.Google Scholar
  9. Brunet, N. D., Hickey, G. M., and Humphries, M. M. (2014). Understanding Community-Researcher Partnerships in the Natural Sciences: A Case Study from the Arctic. Journal of Rural Studies 36: 247–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buijs, C. (2010). Inuit Perceptions of Climate Change in East Greenland. Inuit Studies 34(1): 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buteau, S., Fortier, R., and Allard, M. (2010). Permafrost Weakening as a Potential Impact of Climatic Warming. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering 24(1): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CANOCO Version 4.53. June (2004). C.J.F. Ter Braak 1988–2003 Biometris - quantitative methods in the life and earth sciences. Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  13. Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Sage Publications Ltd, London.Google Scholar
  14. Comiso, J. C., Parkinson, C. L., Gersten, R., and Stock, L. (2008). Accelerated Decline in the Arctic Sea Ice Cover. Geophysical Research Letters 35(1): L01703. 6p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cruikshank, J. (2001). Glaciers and Climate Change: Perspectives from Oral Tradition. Arctic 54(4): 377–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Derocher, A. E., Lunn, N. J., and Stirling, I. (2004). Polar Bears in a Warming Climate. Integrative and Comparative Biology 44(2): 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Downing, A., and Cuerrier, A. (2011). A Synthesis of the Impacts of Climate Change on the First Nations and Inuit of Canada. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 10(1): 57–70.Google Scholar
  18. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche. (1986). Les parcs québécois. 7 : Les régions naturelles. Direction générale du plein air et des parcs. 257 p. et carte.Google Scholar
  19. Duerden, F. (2004). Translating Climate Change Impacts at the Community Level. Arctic 2: 204–212.Google Scholar
  20. Dufour-Tremblay, G., Lévesque, E., and Boudreau, S. (2012). Dynamics at the Treeline: Differential Responses of Picea mariana and Larix laricina to Climate Change in Eastern Subarctic. Environmental Research Letters 7: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ellis, S. (2005). Meaningful Consideration? A Review of Traditional Knowledge in Environmental Decision Making. Arctic 58(1): 66–77.Google Scholar
  22. Environment Canada. (2012). Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000. Climate Weather Office, Ottawa. Accessed July 3, 2013.
  23. FAPAQ. (2000). État des connaissances. Parc des Pingualuit. Société de la faune et des parcs du Québec, Direction de la planification et du développement des parcs québécois. Gouvernement du Québec.Google Scholar
  24. Ferguson, M. A. D., and Messier, F. (1997). Collection and Analysis of Traditional Ecological Knowledge About a Population of Arctic Tundra Caribou. Arctic 50: 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferguson, M. A. D., Williamson, R. G., and Messier, F. (1998). Inuit Knowledge of Long-Term Changes in a Population of Arctic Tundra Caribou. Arctic 51: 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fienup-Riordan, A. (2010). Yup’ik Perspectives on Climate Change: “The World is Following its People”. Inuit Studies 34(1): 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: The Emergence of a Perspective for Social–Ecological Systems Analyses. Global Environmental Change 16(3): 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Folliott, J. (2008). Weather Observations, Perceptions and Related Impacts: A Case Study of Aklavik, NWT and Old Crow, YT, 1996–2006. Proceedings, Planning for Climate Change, 1.Google Scholar
  29. Ford, J., and The community of Igloolik (2006). Sensitivity of Iglulingmiut hunters to hazards associated with climate change. In Riewe, R., and Oakes, J. (eds.), Climate Change: Linking Traditional and Scientific Knowledge. Aboriginal Issues Press, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, pp. 147–154.Google Scholar
  30. Fox, S. (2002). “These are things that are really happening”: Inuit perspectives on the evidence and impacts of climate change in Nunavut. In Krupnik, I., and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change. Fairbanks, Alaska, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, pp. 12–53.Google Scholar
  31. Furgal, C., Martin, D., and Gosselin, P. (2002). Climate change and health in Nunavik and Labrador: Lessons from Inuit knowledge. In Krupnik, I., and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change. Fairbanks, Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, pp. 267–299.Google Scholar
  32. Furgal, C. M., Garvin, T. D., and Jardine, C. G. (2010). Trends in the Study of Aboriginal Health Risks in Canada. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 69(4).Google Scholar
  33. Furgal, C., and Prowse, T. (2009). Climate impacts on northern Canada: Introduction. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 38(5), 246–247.Google Scholar
  34. Gagnon, C. A., and Berteaux, D. (2006). Integrating traditional and scientific knowledge: Management of Canada’s National Parks. In Riewe, R., and Oakes, J. (eds.), Climate Change: Linking Traditional and Scientific Knowledge. Aboriginal Issues Press, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, pp. 209–221.Google Scholar
  35. Gagnon, C. A., and Berteaux, D. (2009). Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Ecological Science: A Question of Scale. Ecology and Society 14(2): 19.Google Scholar
  36. Garibaldi, A. and Turner N. (2004). Cultural Keystone Species: Implications for Ecological Conservation and Restoration. Ecology and Society 9(3)Google Scholar
  37. Gearheard, S., Pocernich, M., Stewart, R., Sanguya, J., and Huntington, H. P. (2010). Linking Inuit Knowledge and Meteorological Station Observations to Understand Changing Wind Patterns at Clyde River, Nunavut. Climatic Change 100: 267–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gilchrist, G., Mallory, M., and Merkel, F. (2005). Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds. Ecology and Society 10(1): 20.Google Scholar
  39. Glaser, B. G., and Strauss, A. L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Aldine Pub. Co., Chicago.Google Scholar
  40. Gouvernement du Québec. (2010). Zoom sur la région-Nunavik. Site Internet Ministère Culture, Communications et Condition féminine., accessed July 3, 2013.
  41. Graversen, R. G., Mauritsen, T., Tjernström, M., Källén, E., and Svensson, G. (2008). Vertical Structure of Recent Arctic Warming. Nature 451: 53–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gunn, A., Poole, K. G., Wierzchowski, J., Nishi, J. S., Adamczewski, J., Russell, D., and D’Hont, A. (2013). Have Geographical Influences and Changing Abundance Led to Sub-Population Structure in the Ahiak Caribou Herd, Nunavut, Canada? Rangifer 33(2): 35–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guyot, M., Dickson, C., Paci, C., Furgal, C., and Chan, H. M. (2006). Local Observations of Climate Change and Impacts on Traditional Food Security in Two Northern Aboriginal Communities. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 65(5): 403–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hennon, P. E., D’Amore, D. V., Schaberg, P. G., Wittwer, D. T., and Shanley, C. S. (2012). Shifting Climate, Altered Niche, and a Dynamic Conservation Strategy for Yellow-Cedar in the North Pacific Coastal Rainforest. BioScience 62(2): 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Henshaw, A. (2006). Winds of change: Weather knowledge amongst the Sikusilarmiut. In Riewe, R., and Oakes, J. (eds.), Climate Change: Linking Traditional and Scientific Knowledge. Aboriginal Issues Press, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, pp. 177–186.Google Scholar
  46. Huntington, H. P., Callaghan, T., Fox, S., and Krupnik, I. (2004). Matching Traditional and Scientific Observations to Detect Environmental Change: A Discussion on Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems. Ambio 13: 18–23. Special Report.Google Scholar
  47. Huntington, H. P., Trainor, S. F., Natcher, D. C., Huntington, O. H., DeWilde, L., and Stuart Chapin III, F. (2006). The Significance of Context in Community-Based Research: Understanding Discussions About Wildfire in Huslia, Alaska. Ecology and Society 11(1): 40.Google Scholar
  48. IPCC, (2007) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, editors. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. [online] URL:
  49. Jägerbrand, A. K., Alatalo, J. M., Chrismes, D., and Molau, U. (2009). Plant Community Responses to 5 Years of Simulated Climate Change in Meadow and Heath Ecosystems at a Subarctic-Alpine Site. Oecologia 161: 601–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jeune, B., and Sattler, R. (1992). Multivariate Analysis in Process Morphology of Plants. Journal of Theoretical Biology 156: 147–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Johnson, C. J., and Russell, D. E. (2014). Long-Term Distribution Responses of a Migratory Caribou Herd to Human Disturbance. Biological Conservation 177: 52–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kellogg, J., Joseph, G., Marobela, K. A., Flint, C., Komarnytsky, S., Fear, G., Struwe, L., Raskin, I., and Lila, M. A. (2010). Screens-to-Nature: Opening Doors to Traditional Knowledge and Hands-On Science Education. NACTA Journal 54(3): 43–50.Google Scholar
  53. King, L. (2004). Competing Knowledge Systems in the Management of Fish and Forests in the Pacific Northwest. International Environmental Agreements 4(2): 161–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kofinas, G., Osherenko, G., Klein, D., and Forbes, B. (2000). Research Planning in the Face of Change: The Human Role in Reindeer/Caribou Systems. Polar Research 19: 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Krebs, C. J., Boonstra, R., Cowcill, K., and Kenney, A. J. (2009). Climatic Determinants of Berry Crops in the Boreal Forest of the Southwestern Yukon. Botany 87: 401–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. KRG (2005). Kuururjuaq Park Project (Monts-Torngat-et-Rivière Koroc). Status Report. Kativik Regional Government, Renewable Resources, Environmental and Land Use Planning Department, Parks Section, Kuujjuaq.Google Scholar
  57. KRG (2007). Lacs-Guillaume-Delisle-et-à-l’Eau-Claire Park Project. Status report. Kativik Regional Government, Renewable Resources, Environmental and Land Use Planning Department, Parks Section, Kuujjuaq.Google Scholar
  58. Krupnik, I., and Jolly, D. (2002). The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change. Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, Alaska, and The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  59. Krupnik, I., Aporta, C., Gearheard, S., Laidler, G. J., and Holm, L. K. (2010). SIKU: Knowing Our Ice: Documenting Inuit Sea Ice Knowledge and Use. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kunuk, Z., and Mauro I. (2010). Qapirangajuq: Inuit Knowledge and Climate Change. Igloolik Isuma Productions, Montréal, Québec, Canada. [online] URL:
  61. Kutz, S. J., Jenkins, E. J., Veitch, A. M., Ducrocq, J., Polley, L., Elkin, B., and Lair, S. (2009). The Arctic as a Model for Anticipating, Preventing, and Mitigating Climate Change Impacts on Host-Parasite Interactions. Veterinary Parasitology 163(3): 217–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Laidler, G. J. (2006). Inuit and Scientific Perspectives on the Relationship Between Sea Ice and Climate Change: The Ideal Complement? Climatic Change 78: 407–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Laidler, G. J., and Elee, P. (2008). Human Geographies of Sea Ice: Freeze/Thaw Processes Around Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada. Polar Record 44: 51–76.Google Scholar
  64. Laidler, G. J., and Ikummaq, T. (2008). Human Geographies of Sea Ice: Freeze/Thaw Processes Around Igloolik, Nunavut, Canada. Polar Record 44: 127–153.Google Scholar
  65. Laidler, G. J., Dialla, A., and Joamie, E. (2008). Human Geographies of Sea Ice: Freeze/Thaw Processes Around Pangnirtung, Nunavut, Canada. Polar Record 44: 335–361.Google Scholar
  66. Legendre, P., and Legendre, L. (1998). Numerical Ecology, 2nd English ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  67. Leiner, R. H., Holloway, P. S., and Neal, D. B. (2006). Antioxidant Capacity and Quercetin Levels in Alaska Wild Berries. Journal of Fruit Science 6(1): 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lévesque, E., Hermanutz, L., Gérin-Lajoie, J., et al. (2012). Trends in vegetation dynamics and impacts on berry productivity. In Allard, M., and Lemay, M. (eds.), Nunavik and Nunatsiavut: From Science to Policy. An Integrated Regional Impact Study (IRIS) of Climate Change and Modernization. ArcticNet Inc, Quebec City, pp. 223–247.Google Scholar
  69. Martin, T. (2001). Solidarités et intégration communautaire: Le projet Grande-Baleine et le relogement des Inuit de Kuujjuarapik à Umiujaq. Ph.D. dissertation, Université Laval.Google Scholar
  70. McCune, B., and Grace, J. B. (2002). Analysis of Ecological Communities. MjM Software Design, Gleneden Beach.Google Scholar
  71. McDonald, M. A., Arragutainaq, L. and Novalinga, Z. (1997). Voices from the Bay. Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Inuit and Cree in the Hudson Bay Bioregion. Canadian Arctic Resource Committee.Google Scholar
  72. McManus, K., Morton, D., Masek, J., Wang, D., Sexton, J., Nagol, J., Ropars, P., and Boudreau, S. (2012). Satellite-Based Evidence for Shrub and Graminoid Tundra Expansion in Northern Quebec from 1986–2010. Global Change Biology 18(7): 2313–2323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Myers-Smith, I. H., Forbes, B. C., Wilmking, M., Hallinger, M., Lantz, T., Blok, D., and Hik, D. S. (2011). Shrub Expansion in Tundra Ecosystems: Dynamics, Impacts and Research Priorities. Environmental Research Letters 6(4): 045509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nadasdy, P. (2006). The case of the missing sheep: Time, space, and the politics of “trust” in co-management practice. In Menzies, C. (ed.), Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Natural Resource Management. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, pp. 142–172.Google Scholar
  75. Nickels, S., Furgal, C., Buell, M. and Moquin, H. (2006). Unikkaaqatigiit – Putting the Human Face on Climate Change: Perspectives from Inuit of Canada. Ottawa, Joint publication of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments at Université Laval and the Ajunnginiq Centre at the National Aboriginal Health Organization.Google Scholar
  76. Nunavik Tourism Association. (2010). Internet site accessed November 18, 2014:
  77. Parlee, B., and Berkes, F. (2006). Indigenous Knowledge of Ecological Variability and Commons Management: A Case Study on Berry Harvesting from Northern Canada. Human Ecology 34(4): 515–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pomeroy, J. W., and Gray, D. M. (1995). Snow cover accumulation, relocation and management, National Hydrology Research Institute. Science Report, vol. 7. Environment Canada, Saskatoon.Google Scholar
  79. Provencher-Nolet, L., Bernier, M. and Lévesque, E. (2015). Quantification des changements récents à l’écotone forêt-toundra à partir de l’analyse numérique de photographies aériennes. ÉcoScience.Google Scholar
  80. Reyes-Garcia, V., Vadez, V., Tanner, S., Huanca, T., Leonard, W. R. and McDade, T. (2006). Measuring What People Know About the Environment. A Review of Quantitative Studies. Tsimane’ Amazonian Panel Study Working Paper (21).Google Scholar
  81. Riedlinger, D. (2001). Community-Based Assessments of Change: Contributions of Inuvialuit Knowledge to Understanding Climate Change in the Canadian Arctic. MS Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.Google Scholar
  82. Riedlinger, D., and Berkes, F. (2001). Contributions of Traditional Knowledge to Understanding Climate Change in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Record 37: 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ropars, P., and Boudreau, S. (2012). Shrub Expansion at the Forest-Tundra Ecotone: Spatial Heterogeneity Linked to Local Topography. Environmental Research Letters 7: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Salick, J., and Ross, N. (2009). Traditional Peoples and Climate Change. Global Environmental Change 19: 137–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sayles, J. S., and Mulrennan, M. E. (2010). Securing a Future: Cree Hunters’ Resistance and Flexibility to Environmental Changes, Wemindji, James Bay. Ecology and Society 15(4): 22.Google Scholar
  86. Schiermeier, Q. (2007). Climate Change 2007: What We Don’t Know About Climate Change. Nature 445(7128): 580–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In Denzin, N. K., and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd ed. Sage Publications Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  88. Statistics Canada. (2011). 2011 Census of the Population. Accessed November 18, 2014:
  89. Stow, D. A., Hope, A., McGuire, D., Verbyla, D., Gamon, J., Huemmrich, F., Houston, S., Racine, C., Sturm, M., Tape, K., Hinzman, L., Yoshikawa, K., Tweedie, C., Noyle, B., Silapaswan, C., Douglas, D., Griffith, B., Jia, G., Epstein, H., Walker, D., Daeschner, S., Petersen, A., Zhou, L., and Myneni, R. (2004). Remote Sensing of Vegetation and Land-Cover Change in Arctic Tundra Ecosystems. Remote Sensing of Environment 89: 281–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sturm, M., McFadden, J. P., Liston III, G. E., Chapin, F. S., Racine, C. H., and Holmgren, J. (2001). Snow-Shrub Interaction in Arctic Tundra: A Hypothesis with Climate Implications. Journal of Climate 14: 336–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tape, K. E. N., Sturm, M., and Racine, C. (2006). The Evidence for Shrub Expansion in Northern Alaska and the Pan‐Arctic. Global Change Biology 12(4): 686–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Thorpe, N., Hakongak, N., Eyegetok, S., and Elders, K. (2001). Thunder on the Tundra: Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit of the Bathurst Caribou. Generation Printing, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  93. Thorpe, N., Eyegetok, S., Hakongak, N., and Elders of Kitikmeot (2002). Nowadays it is not the same: Inuit Quajimajatuqangit, climate and caribou in the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut, Canada. In Krupnik, I., and Jolly, D. (eds.), The Earth is Faster Now: Indigenous Observations of Arctic Environmental Change. Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, pp. 198–239.Google Scholar
  94. Tremblay, M., Furgal, C., Larrivée, C., Annanack, T., Tookalook, P., Qiisik, M., Angiyou, E., Swappie, N., Savard, J. P., and Barrett, M. (2008). Climate Change in Northern Quebec: Adaptation Strategies from Community-Based Research. Arctic 61: 27–34. Suppl.Google Scholar
  95. Tremblay, B., Lévesque, E., and Boudreau, S. (2012). Recent Expansion of Erect Shrubs in the Low Arctic: Evidence from Eastern Nunavik. Environmental Research Letters 7: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Turner, N., and Spalding, P. R. (2013). “We Might Go Back to This”; Drawing on the Past to Meet the Future in Northwestern North American Indigenous Communities. Ecology and Society 18(4): 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., and Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social–Ecological Systems. Ecology and Society 9(2): 5.Google Scholar
  98. Warren, C. R., Lumsden, C., O’Dowd, S., and Birnie, R. V. (2005). ‘Green on Green’: Public Perceptions of Wind Power in Scotland and Ireland. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 48(6): 851–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. WCED (1987) Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  100. Weatherhead, E., Gearheard, S., and Barry, R. G. (2010). Changes in Weather Persistence: Insight from Inuit Knowledge. Global Environmental Change 20(3): 523–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weintraub, M. N., and Schimel, J. P. (2005). Nitrogen Cycling and the Spread of Shrubs Control Changes in the Carbon Balance of Arctic Tundra Ecosystems. BioScience 55(5): 409–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Willox, A. C., Harper, S. L., Ford, J. D., Edge, V. L., Landman, K., Houle, K., Blake, S., and Wolfrey, C. (2013). Climate Change and Mental Health: An Exploratory Case Study from Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, Canada. Climatic Change 121: 255–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yin, R. K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 4th ed. Sage, Los Angeles.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alain Cuerrier
    • 1
  • Nicolas D. Brunet
    • 2
  • José Gérin-Lajoie
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ashleigh Downing
    • 1
  • Esther Lévesque
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Jardin botanique de Montréal, Institut de recherche en biologie végétaleUniversité de MontréalMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Quebec Centre for Biodiversity ScienceMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  3. 3.Département de chimie-biologieUniversité du Québec à Trois-RivièresTrois-RivièresCanada
  4. 4.Centre d’études nordiquesUniversité LavalQuébecCanada

Personalised recommendations