Blundering Intruders: Extraneous Impacts on Two Indigenous Food Systems
- 1.7k Downloads
Indigenous communities commonly face a major impediment in their ongoing efforts to participate effectively in the stewardship and sustainable management of their traditional lands, waters and resources. Externally driven projects and policies can overwhelm communities' abilities to respond, severely impact in their resource base, and significantly eclipse traditional knowledge, practices and values. Such projects and policies can be devastating to small, Indigenous communities struggling to maintain their culture and economic independence in a changing world. While many examples of external impacts on small-scale resource use could be drawn upon for these communities, we illustrate this situation by examining the impact of fisheries management regimes on Indigenous coastal communities in British Columbia, Canada and Aotearoa New Zealand. We characterize the problem and identify key stressors involved. Within the context of Indigenous rights and Indigenous peoples' knowledge, perspectives and experience, we highlight the need to recognize this type of constraint on Indigenous Peoples' resource use and effective participation in resource management.
KeywordsIndigenous fishing rights Indigenous values Colonization Indigenous stewardship Sustainable resource management
We are grateful to the many Indigenous environmental and cultural experts whose experiences and wisdom have informed our paper. We also acknowledge the Tula Foundation and Marsden Funds in BC and ANZ respectively for supporting our research.
- Anderson, E. N. (1996). Ecologies of the heart, emotion, belief and the environment. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Anon (1990). Pacheenaht Hereditary Chief at age 113. Times-Colonist, Feb 10, 1990, citing interview in The Ottawa Citizen, Sept. 5, 1987, F2.Google Scholar
- ANZ (Aotearoa New Zealand) Government. (1991). Resource Management Act.Google Scholar
- Atleo, E. R., and Chief Umeek (2011). Principles of Tsawalk. An indigenous approach to global crisis. UBC Press, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
- Ban, N. C., Picard, C., and Vincent, A. C. J. (2008). Moving toward spatial solutions in marine conservation with indigenous communities. Ecology and Society 13(3): 32 [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/voll3/issl/ [accessedFebruary23,2013].
- Berkes, F. (2012a). Sacred ecology, 3rd ed. Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
- Brown, F., and Brown, K. (2009). Staying the course, staying alive. Coastal first nations fundamental truths. Biodiversity BC, Victoria.Google Scholar
- Campbell, S. K., and Butler, V. L. (2010). Archaeological evidence for resilience of pacific northwest salmon, the last ~7,500 years. Ecology and Society 15(1): 17 [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss1/ [accessedFebruary23,2013].
- Carpenter, J., Humchitt, C. and Eldridge, M. (2000). Heiltsuk Traditional Fish Trap Study. Final Report, Fisheries Renewal BC Research Reward, Science Council of BC Reference Number FS99-32, Bella Bella: Heiltsuk Cultural Education Centre, July 2000. [Unpublished manuscript on file at the HCEC, Box 880, Waglisla, BC V0T 1Z0, 250-957-2626.]Google Scholar
- Carrothers, W. A. (1941). Herring, Pichard, Cod, Sturgeon and Dogfish. Chapter 9 in The British Columbia Fisheries. University of Toronto Press, Ontario.Google Scholar
- CFNTPI (Coastal First Nations Turning Point Initiative). (2009). Into the Deep Blue. Marine Ecosystem-based management. CFNTPI, Vancouver, BC. (With North Coast – Skeena First Nations Stewardship Society, Prince Rupert, BC.) URL: www.pncima.org/media/documents/pdf/intothedeepblue.pdf [accessed January 22, 2012].
- Clayoquot Scientific Panel. (1995). First Nations’ Perspectives Relating to Forest Practices in Clayoquot Sound. Report 3, Cortex Consulting, Victoria, BC.Google Scholar
- Claxton Sr., E., and Elliott Sr., J. (1994). Reef Net technology of the saltwater people. Saanich Indian School Board, Brentwood Bay, BC.Google Scholar
- Coates, N. (2009). Joint-management agreements in New Zealand: simply empty promises? Journal of South Pacific Law 13(1): 32–39.Google Scholar
- Cohen, B. I. (2010) Fraser River Sockeye Salmon: Past Declines. Future Sustainability? Interim Report. Commission of Inquiry into the Decline of Sockeye Salmon in the Fraser River, Government of Canada, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
- Coté, I. M., Dodson, J. J., Fleming, I. A., Hutchings, J. A., Jennings, S., Mantua, N. J., Peterman, R. M., Riddell, B. E., Weaver, A. J., and VanderZwaag, D. L. (2012). Sustaining Canada’s Marine Biodiversity: Responding to the Challenges Posed by Climate Change, Fisheries, and Aquaculture. February 2012. Report of The Royal Society of Canada (RSC), The Academies of Arts, Humanities and Sciences of Canada, Ottawa, ONGoogle Scholar
- Coward, H., Ommer, R. and Pitcher, T. (2000). Just Fish. Social and Economic Papers, No. 23, St. John’s, NF: Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER), Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Nfld.Google Scholar
- Davis, W. (2011). The sacred headwaters. The fight to save the Stikine, Skeena, and Nass. Greystone Books, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
- Dick, J., Turner, R., Stephenson, J., Kirikiri, R., and Moller, H. (2012). Mana Moana, Mana Tangata: testimonies on depletion and restoration of mahinga kai. Tirohia he huarahi research report #1. Centre for Sustainability, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ.Google Scholar
- Durie, M. (1998). Te Mana, Te Kāwanatanga: the politics of Māori self-determination. Oxford University Press, NZ.Google Scholar
- Ecotrust Canada. (2009). A cautionary tale about ITQ fisheries. [Posted on July 30th, 2009] http://ecotrust.ca/fisheries/cautionarytale [accessed January 23, 2012]
- FOC. (2011a). Aquatic Species at Risk - Northern Abalone. URL: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/species-especes/species-especes/northernabalone-haliotidepie-eng.htm (modified 2011-08-25; Accessed February 7, 2012).
- FOC. (2011b). Stock Assessment Report on Pacific Herring in 2011. FOC Pacific Region. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Science Advisory Report 2011/061.Google Scholar
- Guujaaw (President of the Council of Haida Nation). (2001). Interview with Mark Harvey (together with Greg Thomas, FOC) about the Herring Fishery. Vancouver, BC: CBC Radio - Daybreak North, 8:43 a.m. Thursday, January 18, 2001.Google Scholar
- Haggan, N., Ainsworth C., Pitcher, T., Sumaila, U. R. and Heymans, J. (2007). Life in the Fast Food Chain: Où Sont Les Poissons d’Antan? Chapter 4, pp. 51–74 in: Resetting the Kitchen Table: Food Security, Culture… Edited by C.C. Parrish, N. J. Turner and S. M. Solberg, Nova Science Publishers, NY.Google Scholar
- Harding, R. (1991). New Zealand fisheries management: a study in bureaucratisation. Unpublished PhD thesis. Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington.Google Scholar
- Harmsworth, G., Barclay-Kerr, K., and Reedy, T. (2002). Māori sustainable development in the 21st century: the importance of Māori values, strategic planning and information systems. He Puna Kōrero: Journal of Māori & Pacific Development 3: 40–68.Google Scholar
- Harris, D. C. (2002). Fish, Law, and Colonialism: the legal capture of Salmon in British Columbia. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON.Google Scholar
- Harris, R. C. (1997). The resettlement of British Columbia. Essays on colonialism and geographical change. UBC Press, Vancouver.Google Scholar
- Hebda, R., and Frederick, S. G. (1990). History of marine resources of the northeast pacific since the last glaciation. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Sixth Series I: 319–342.Google Scholar
- Hepburn, C. D., Flack, B., Richards, D. K., and Wing, S. R. (2008). Providing local ecological information for the management of pāua fisheries within taiāpure and mātaitai. Proceedings of Ngā Kete a Rēhua. Christchurch, 4th & 5th September 2008. pp 200–225Google Scholar
- Hepburn, C. D., Kainamu, A., Vanderburg, P., Jackson, A—M., and Flack, B. (2010). Ki Uta Ki Tai: From the Mountains to the Sea. Holistic Approaches to Customary Fisheries Management. Proceedings of the 4th International Traditional Knowledge Conference. Nga Pae o Te Maramatanga, New Zealand’s Māori Centre of Research Excellence, Auckland [online]. Available at http://www.maramatanga.ac.nz/publication/proceedings-4th-international-traditional-knowledge-conference-2010 [accessed February 23, 2013]
- Kawharu, M. (ed.) (2002). Whenua. Managing our resources. Reed Publishing, NZ.Google Scholar
- Kelsey, J. (2002). Old Wine in New Bottles. Globalisation, colonization, resource management and Maori. Pp. 373–396 in Whenua. Managing our Resources, edited by Merata. Reed Publishing, NZ.Google Scholar
- Lindsay, B. (2010). December 2, 2010. First Nations fish-farming suit against gov't okayed. CTV News. URL: http://www.ctvbc.ctv.ca/servlet/an/local/CTVNews/20101202/bc_salmon_class_action_101202/20101202 [accessed January 25, 2012]
- Lutz, J. (2008). Makuk: a New history of aboriginal-white relations. UBC Press, Vancouver.Google Scholar
- Marine Harvest Canada. (2012). Aboriginal Peoples and Marine Harvest Canada Working together. URL: http://www.marineharvestcanada.com/people_first_nations.php [accessed January 25, 2012].
- McCormack, F. (2010) Fish is my Daily Bread: Owning and Transacting in Maori Fisheries. Anthropological Forum, 20: (1)19–39.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Fisheries Science Group (2009). Report from the fisheries assessment plenary, May 2009: stock assessments and yield estimates. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington, NZ.Google Scholar
- Moody, M. (2008). Eulachon past and present. Graduate thesis, resource management & environmental studies. University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Google Scholar
- Morton, A., and Routledge, R. D. (2005). Mortality rates for Juvenile Pink Oncorhynchus gorbushca and Chum O. Keta salmon infested with Sea Lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis in the Broughton Archipelago. Alaska Fisheries Research Bulletin 11(2): 146–152.Google Scholar
- Mutu, M. (2010). Ngāti Kahu kaitiakitanga. Pp. 13–35 in Māori and the Environment: Kaitiaki, edited by R. Selby, P. Moore and M. Mulholland. Huia Publishers, Wellington, NZ.Google Scholar
- Ommer, R., and and the Coasts Under Stress Research Team (2007). Coasts under stress. Restructuring and social-ecological health. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal, QC and Kingston, ON.Google Scholar
- Ommer, R., Holcapek, C. L., Hood, R. J. and the Coasts Under Stress Research Project Team. (2006). Voices on the Edge. University of Victoria, Victoria, BC and Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s.Google Scholar
- Pearse, P. H. (1982). “Turning the tide”: A New policy for Canada’s fisheries. The commission on pacific fisheries policy. Final Report, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
- Pinkerton, E., and Weinstein, M. (1995). Fisheries that work: sustainability through community-based management. The David Suzuki Foundation, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
- Reading, C. L. and Wien, F. (2009). Health Inequalities and Social Determinants of Aboriginal Peoples’ Health. NCCAH. URL: www.nccah-ccnsa.ca/docs/…/NCCAH-loppie-Wien_report.pdf [accessed September 24, 2012].
- Ruru, J. (2012). Settling indigenous place: reconciling legal fictions in governing Canada and aotearoa New Zealand’s national park. PhD dissertation, Faculty of Law, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC.Google Scholar
- Ruru, J., Stephenson, J., and Abbott, M. (eds.) (2011). Making Our place: exploring land-Use tensions in aotearoa New Zealand. Otago University Press, Dunedin, NZ.Google Scholar
- Salmond, A. (1997). Between worlds: early exchanges between Maori and Europeans 1773–1815. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.Google Scholar
- Selby, R. and Moore, P. (2010). Nōku te whenua o ōku tūpuna: Ngāti Pareraukawa kaitiakitanga. Pp. 37–57 in Māori and the Environment: Kaitiaki, edited by R. Selby, P. Moore and M. Mulholland. Huia Publishers, Wellington, NZ.Google Scholar
- Stoner, S. (2012). JRP Hearings in Hartley Bay, a blog. Enbridge Northern Gateway pipeline proposal. March 5, 2012 (URL: http://blog.pacificwild.org/) [Accessed March 6, 2012].
- Te Aho, L. (2011) Waikato: River of Life. Pp.145-157 in: Making Our Place: Exploring Land-Use Tensions in Aotearoa New Zealand. Otago University Press, Dunedin, NZ.Google Scholar
- Therriault, T. W., Hay, D. E., and Schweigert, J. F. (2009). Biologic overview and trends in pelagic forage fish abundance in the Salish Sea (strait of Georgia, BC). Marine Ornithology 37: 3–8.Google Scholar
- Turner, N. J. (2004). Plants of Haida Gwaii. Sono Nis Press, Winlaw, BC.Google Scholar
- Turner, N. J., and Berkes, F. (2006). Coming to understanding: developing conservation through incremental learning. Human Ecology, special issue, Developing Resource Management and Conservation 34(4): 495–513.Google Scholar
- Turner, N. J., Gregory, R., Brooks, C., Failing, L., and Satterfield, T. (2008). From invisibility to transparency: identifying the implications (of invisible losses to first nations communities). Ecology and Society 13(2): 7. URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/ [accessedFebruary23,2013].
- UN Convention on Biological Diversity. (1992). Convention on Biological Diversity. [URL: http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml]
- United Nations. (2007). Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Adopted by the UN General Assembly, 13 September 2007.Google Scholar
- Ward, A. (1997). National overview. Volume 1, Waitangi Tribunal Rangahaua Whanui series. Waitangi Tribunal, GP Publications, Wellington, NZ.Google Scholar
- Whyte, A. L. H., Bell, J. J., Ramstad, K. M., and Gardner, J. P. A. (2008). An indigenous-led community challenge to fisheries management in New Zealand: the revival of regional scale management practices? Pacific Conservation Biology 14(4): 248–249.Google Scholar
- World Wildlife Fund New Zealand (2012). Beyond Rio – New Zealand’s environmental record since the original earth summit. WWF, Wellington.Google Scholar