Human Ecology

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 497–511 | Cite as

Regional Integration and Household Resilience: Infrastructure Connectivity and Livelihood Diversity in the Southwestern Amazon

  • Stephen G. Perz
  • Martha Rosero
  • Flavia L. Leite
  • Lucas Araujo Carvalho
  • Jorge Castillo
  • Carlos Vaca Mejia
Article

Abstract

The Inter-Oceanic Highway is among the first wave of large infrastructure projects under the auspices of the Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America, which proposes regional integration as a means of economic development. Such projects have reignited debates over infrastructure impacts, which in many ways center on the ramifications for natural resource management. We pursue an analysis of the implications of highway paving for local livelihoods by focusing on the effects of market connectivity on livelihood diversity. Given that infrastructure brings shocks to affected regions, we argue that livelihood diversity is usefully interpreted in terms of household resilience to such shocks. We draw on rural household surveys from the tri-national frontier where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon, where the Inter-Oceanic Highway has recently been paved. The findings show that households more connected to markets in terms of travel time and road paving have less diverse livelihoods. This confirms concerns about regional integration and rural household vulnerability.

Keywords

Integration Infrastructure Livelihoods Amazon Bolivia Brazil Peru 

References

  1. Adger, W. N. (2000). Social and Ecological Resilience: Are They Related? Progress in Human Geography 24: 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger, W. N. (2006). Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change 16: 268–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bebbington, A. (1999). Capitals and Capabilities: A Framework for Analyzing Peasant Viability, Rural Livelihoods and Poverty. World Development 27: 2021–2044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bourguignon, F., and Pleskovic, B. (2008). Rethinking Infrastructure for Development. World Bank, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  5. Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2001). Regional Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin of Latin American Research 20(3): 360–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calderón C., and Serven, L. (2004). The Effects of Infrastructure Development on Growth and Income Distribution. Central Bank of Chile, Working Paper No. 270.Google Scholar
  7. CEPEI (Centro Peruano de Estudios Internacionales) (2002). La Integración Regional Entre Bolivia, Brasil y Peru. CEPEI, Lima.Google Scholar
  8. Chi, G., Voss, P. R., and Deller, S. C. (2006). Rethinking Highway Effects on Population Change. Public Works Management and Policy 11(1): 18–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Craig, B. J., Pardey, P. J., and Roseboom, J. (1997). International Productivity Patterns: Accounting for Input Quality, Infrastructure, and Research. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79: 1064–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cross, C. (2001). Why Does South Africa Need a Spatial Policy? Population Migration, Infrastructure and Development. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 19: 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Demurger, S. (2001). Infrastructure and Economic Growth: An Explanation for Regional Disparities in China? Journal of Comparative Economics 29: 95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dourojeanni, M. J., Barandiarán, A., and Dourojeanni, D. (2010). Amazonía Peruana en 2021. SPDA, Lima.Google Scholar
  13. Ehringhaus, C. (2005). Post-Victory-Dilemmas: Land Use, Development, and Social Movement in Amazonian Extractive Reserve. PhD Dissertation, Yale University.Google Scholar
  14. Ellis, F. (2000). Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  15. Fan, S., Hazell, P., and Haque, T. (2000). Targeting Public Investments by Agro-Ecological Zone to Achieve Growth and Poverty Alleviation Goals in Rural India. Food Policy 25: 411–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feder, G., Onchan, T., Chalamwong, Y., and Hongladarom, C. (1988). Land Policies and Farm Productivity in Thailand. Johns Hopkins University Press and World Bank, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  17. Gibbs, J. P., and Poston, D. L. (1975). The Division of Labor: Conceptualization and Related Measures. Social Forces 53: 468–476.Google Scholar
  18. Gibson, J., and Rozelle, S. (2003). Poverty and Access to Roads in Papua New Guinea. Economic Development and Cultural Change 52: 159–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldman, A. (1995). Threats to Sustainability in African Agriculture: Searching for Appropriate Paradigms. Human Ecology 23(3): 291–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gunasekera, K., Anderson, W., and Lakshmanan, T. R. (2008). Highway-Induced Development: Evidence from Sri Lanka. World Development 36: 2371–2389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gunderson, L. H. (2000). Ecological Resilience – In Theory and Application. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 425–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haggett, P., Cliff, A. D., and Frey, A. (1977). Locational Analysis in Human Geography. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Haughton, D. M. A., and Mukerjee, S. (1995). The Economic Measurement and Determinants of Diversity. Social Indicators Research 36: 201–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. IIRSA (Iniciativa para la Integracion del a Infraestructura Regional de America del Sur). (2008). URL available at www.iirsa.org. Accessed 20 January 2008.
  26. Iniciativa MAP. (2008). URL available at www.map-amazonia.net. Accessed 20 January 2008.
  27. Isard, W. (1956). Location and Space-Economy: A General Theory Relating to Industrial Location, Market Areas, Land Use, Trade, and Urban Structure. MIT/John Wiley, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  28. Jacoby, H. G. (2000). Access to Markets and the Benefits of Rural Roads. The Economic Journal 110: 713–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. King, L. J. (1984). Central Place Theory. Sage, Beverly Hills.Google Scholar
  30. Leonel, M. (1992). Roads, Indians and the Environment in the Amazon: From Central Brazil to the Pacific Ocean. International Working Group for Indigenous Affairs, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  31. Long, N. (2001). Development Sociology: Actor Perspectives. Routledge, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Magurran, A. E. (1988). Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mahapa, S. M., and Mashiri, S. (2001). Social Exclusion and Rural Transport: Gender Aspects of a Road Improvement Project in Tshitwe, Northern Province. Development Southern Africa 18: 365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mendoza, E., Perz, S. G., Schmink, M., and Nepstad, D. (2007). Participatory Stakeholder Workshops to Mitigate Impacts of Road Paving in the Southwestern Amazon. Conservation and Society 5: 382–407.Google Scholar
  35. Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., da Fonseca, G. A. B., and Kent, J. (2000). Biodiversity Hotpots for Conservation Priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Netting, R. M. C. (1993). Smallholders, Householders. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  37. Pender, J., Jagger, P., Nkonya, E., and Sserunkuuma, D. (2004). Development Pathways and Land Management in Uganda. World Development 32: 767–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Perz, S. G. (2005). The Effects of Household Asset Endowments on Agricultual Diversity Among Frontier Colonists in the Amazon. Agroforestry Forum 63: 263–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Perz, S. G., Cabrera, L., Carvalho, L. A., Castillo, J., Chacacanta, R., Cossio, R., Franco Solano, Y., Hoelle, J., Perales, L. M., Puerta, I., Rojas Cespedes, D., Rojas Camacho, I., and Costa Silva, A. (2012). Regional Integration and Local Change: Road Paving, Community Connectivity and Social-Ecological Resilience in a Tri-National Frontier, Southwestern Amazonia. Regional Environmental Change doi:10.1007/s10113-011-0233-x.Google Scholar
  40. Robinson, R. (2001). Decentralization of Road Administration: Case Studies in Africa and Asia. Public Administration and Development 21: 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rudel, T. K., and Richards, S. (1990). Urbanization, Roads, and Rural Population Change in the Ecuadorian Andes. Studies in Comparative International Development 25: 73–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schmink, M., and Wood, C. H. (1992). Contested Frontiers in Amazonia. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Shriar, A. J. (2009). Roads to Poverty: Exploring the Impacts of Economic Integration on Socioeconomic Conditions and Land Use in Northern Guatemala. Journal of Planning Education and Research 28: 456–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stoian, D. (2000). Variations and Dynamics of Extractive Economies: The Rural–urban Nexus of Non-timber Forest Use in the Bolivian Amazon. PhD Dissertation, Freiburg University.Google Scholar
  45. Straub, S. (2008). Infrastructure and Growth in Developing Countries: Recent Advances and Research Challenges. World Bank Policy Research, Washington, DC. Working Paper No. 4460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Trankell, I. B. (1999). On the Road in Laos: An Anthropological Study of Road Construction and Rural Communities. White Lotus Press, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  47. Van Dijk, P., and den Haak, S. (2007). Troublesome Construction: IIRSA and Public-Private Partnerships in Road Infrastructure. CEDLA: Cuadernos del CEDLA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen G. Perz
    • 1
  • Martha Rosero
    • 1
  • Flavia L. Leite
    • 1
  • Lucas Araujo Carvalho
    • 2
  • Jorge Castillo
    • 4
  • Carlos Vaca Mejia
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Criminology & LawUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Universidade Federal do AcreAcreBrazil
  3. 3.Universidad Amazonica de PandoCobijaBolivia
  4. 4.Universidad Nacional Amazonica de Madre de DiosMadre de DiosPeru

Personalised recommendations