Advertisement

Human Ecology

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 679–691 | Cite as

REDD Policy Impacts on Indigenous Property Rights Regimes on Palawan Island, the Philippines

  • Wolfram Dressler
  • Melanie McDermott
  • Will Smith
  • Juan Pulhin
Article

Abstract

Several Southeast Asian states have been working feverishly to design and implement REDD policy frameworks to fulfil their commitment to global climate change mitigation. In doing so, state agencies will be challenged to design REDD plus policies that value and conserve forest carbon in ways that align with national policies and local priorities for managing forest landscapes defined by complex property rights regimes. However, as with other market-based policies, the expeditious delivery of REDD could bypass critical analysis of potential interactions with national tenure regimes, customary property rights, and local livelihoods. Drawing on the case of Palawan Island—a forested frontier island in the Philippines—we examine how nascent REDD policies can articulate with state sanctioned tenure, customary tenure, and forest uses in changing livelihood contexts. This paper draws on research among Tagbanua and Pala’wan people to illustrate how complex and changing tenure structures, commodity markets and livelihood dynamics may influence how REDD plus interventions affect indigenous customary lands and forest use. We argue that the ability of indigenous forest users to maintain stored carbon and improve livelihoods is contingent upon the ‘socio-material’ form of carbon—a commodity defined in relation to the resources and social processes of which it is part.

Keywords

Forest carbon Forest tenure Relationality REDD plus Southeast Asia 

References

  1. ADVANCED REDD Seminar (2011). Improving Forest Governance and Sustainable Upland Development Through Climate Change Mitigation Financing Strategies in Southern Palawan. Presentation by ELAC and others, Palawan Island, The PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal, A., and Ribot, J. (1999). Accountability in decentralization: A framework with South Asian and West African cases. The Journal of Developing Studies 33: 473–502.Google Scholar
  3. Batterbury, S. (2001). Landscapes of Diversity: A Local Political Ecology of Livelihood Diversification in South-Western Niger. Ecumene 8(4): 437–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berry, S. (1989). Social Institutions and Access to Resources. Africa 59(1): 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berry, S. (1994). Resource access and management as a historical process: conceptual and methodological issues. In Lund, C. and Marcussen, H. S. (eds.), Access, Control and Management of Natural Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa – Methodological Considerations. Occasional Paper no. 3. Roskilde University.Google Scholar
  6. Berry, S. (1997). Tomatoes, Land, and Hearsay. World Development 25(8): 1225–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beyner-Farris, and Basset, T. (2012). The REDD Menace: Resurgent Protectionism in Tanzania’s Mangrove Forests. Global Environmental Change 22(2): 332–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borlagdan S. B., Guiang, E. S., and Pulhin, J. M. (2001). Preliminary Assessment of Community-Based Forest Management in the Philippines. Unpublished project report submitted to the Ford Foundation, Inc., Philippines, Institute of Philippine Culture, Ateneo de Manila University in collaboration with the Department of Social Forestry and Forest Governance, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Banos.Google Scholar
  9. Bruun, T. B., de Neergaard, A., Lawrence, D., and Ziegler, A. (2009). Environmental Consequences of the Demise in Swidden Agriculture in Southeast Asia: Carbon Storage and Soil Quality. Human Ecology 37: 375–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bumpus, A. (2011). The Matter of Carbon: Understanding the Materiality of tCO2e in Carbon Offsets. Antipode 43(3): 612–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bumpus, A., and Liverman, D. (2008). Accumulation by Decarbonisation and the Governance of Carbon Offsets. Economic Geography 84(2): 127–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cleaver, F. (2000). Moral Ecological Rationality: Institutions and the Management of Common Property Resources. Development and Change 31(2): 361–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cleaver, F. (2002). Reinventing Institutions: Bricolage and the Social Embeddedness of Natural Resource Management. European Journal of Development Research 14(2): 11–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cleaver, F. (2007). Understanding Agency in Collective Action. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 8(2): 223–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. CoDe REDD. (2011). Community Development Through REDD. website: http://ntfp.org/coderedd/about-code-redd/objectives-and-strategies.
  16. Conklin, H. (1954). An Ethnoecological Approach to Shifting Agriculture. Transactions II(14): 133–142.Google Scholar
  17. Cramb, R., and Sunjang, P. (2011). ‘Shifting Ground’: Renegotiating Land Rights and Rural Livelihoods in Sarawak, Malaysia. Asia Pacific Viewpoint 52(2): 136–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) (1998). A Compilation of Policies on Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM). Community-Based Forest Management Office, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Manila.Google Scholar
  19. Dove, M. (1983). Theories of Swidden Agriculture and the Political Economy of Ignorance. Agroforestry Systems 1: 85–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dressler, W. (2009). Old Thoughts in New Ideas: State Conservation Measures, Livelihood and Development on Palawan Island, the Philippines. Ateneo de Manila University Press, Quezon City.Google Scholar
  21. Dressler, W., and Pulhin, J. (2010). The Shifting Ground of Swidden Agriculture on Palawan Island, the Philippines. Agriculture and Human Values 27(4): 445–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dressler, W., and Turner, S. (2008). The Persistence of Social Differentiation in the Philippine Uplands. Journal of Development Studies. 44(10): 1472–1492Google Scholar
  23. Dressler, W., Kull, C., and Meredith, T. (2006). The Politics of Decentralizing National Parks Management. Journal of Political Geography 25: 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eaton, K. (2001). Political Obstacles to Decentralization: Evidence from Argentina and the Philippines Development and Change 32, 101–127.Google Scholar
  25. Eder, J. (1987). On the Road to Tribal Extinction. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  26. Eder, J., and Fernandez, J. (1996). Palawan, a last frontier. In Eder, J., and Fernandez, J. (eds.), Palawan at the Crossroads: Development and the Environment on a Philippine frontier. Ateneo de Manila University Press, Quezon City, pp. 1–23.Google Scholar
  27. Fox, R. (1954). Tagbanua Religion and Society. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Chicago, Illinois. National Museum, Manila.Google Scholar
  28. Goldman, M. (2001). Constructing an Environmental State: Eco-Governmentality and Other Transnational Practices of a ‘Green’ World Bank. Social Problems 48(4): 499–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness. The American Journal of Sociology 91(3): 481–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gudeman, S. (2001). The Anthropology of Economy: Community, Market and Culture. Blackwell Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  31. Harvey, D. (2005). Spaces of Neoliberalization: Towards a Theory of Uneven Geographical Development. Franz Steiner Verlag, Munich.Google Scholar
  32. IPRA Act (1997). (Indigenous Peoples Rights Act 1997) Republic Act No. 8371 Congress of the Philippines, Manila, Republic of the Philippines.Google Scholar
  33. Lansing, D. (2011). Realizing Carbon’s Value: Discourse and Calculation in the Production of Carbon Forestry Offsets in Costa Rica. Antipode 43(3): 731–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Larson, A. (2002). Natural Resources and Decentralization in Nicaragua: Are Local Governments Up to the Job? World Development 30: 17–31.Google Scholar
  35. Larson, A. (2011). Forest Tenure Reform in the Age of Climate Change: Lessons for REDD+. Global Environmental Change 21(2): 540–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Larson, A., and Ribot, J. (2004). Democratic Decentralization through a Natural Resource Lens: An Introduction. European Journal of Development Research 16: 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Larson, A., Marfo, E., Cronkleton, P., and Pulhin, J. (2010). Authority relations under new forest tenure arrangement. In Larson, A., Barry, D., Dahal, G., and Pierce Colfer, C. (eds.), Forests for People: Community Rights and Forest Tenure. Earthscan Press, Washington, D.C, pp. 93–116.Google Scholar
  38. Local Government Code (1992). Local Government Code, Congress of the Philippines, Manila, Republic of the Philippines.Google Scholar
  39. Lopez, M. (1987). The politics of land at risk in a Philippine frontier. In Little, P. D., and Horowitz, M. (eds.), Lands at Risk in the Third World: Local Level Perspectives Boulder. Westview Press, Colorado.Google Scholar
  40. Lund, C. (1998). Struggles for Land and Political Power: On the Politicization of Land Tenure and Disputes in Niger. Journal of Legal Pluralism 40: 1–22.Google Scholar
  41. McDermott, M. (2000). Boundaries and Pathways: Indigenous Identities, Ancestral Domain, and Forest Use in Palawan, the Philippines. PhD Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  42. McDermott, M. (2001). Invoking community: Indigenous people and ancestral domain in Palawan, the Philippines. In Agrawal, A., and Gibson, C. (eds.), Communities and the Environment: Ethnicity, Gender, and the State in Community-Based Conservation. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick.Google Scholar
  43. Mertz, O. (2009). Trends in Shifting Cultivation and the REDD Mechanism. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1(2): 156–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mustalahti, I., Bolin, A., Boyd, E., and Paavola, J., (2012) Can REDD Plus Reconcile Local Priorities and Needs with Global Mitigation Beneftis? Lessons from Angai Forest, Tanzania. Ecology and Society 17(1).Google Scholar
  45. Nevins, J., and Peluso, N. (2008). Introduction: Commoditzation in Southeast Asia. In Nevins, J., and Peluso, N. (eds.), Taking Southeast Asia to Market: Commodities, Nature, and People in the Neoliberal Age. Cornell University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Peskett, L., and Brockhaus, M. (2009). When REDD+ goes national: A review of realities, opportunities and challenges. In Angelsen, A., Brockhaus, M., Kanninen, M., Sills, E., Sunderlin, W. D., and Wertz-Kanounniko, S. (eds.), Realising REDD+ National Strategy and Policy Options. CIFOR, Bogor.Google Scholar
  47. Phelps, J., Guerrero, M. C., Dalabajan, D., Young, B., and Webb, E. L. (2010a). What Makes a ‘REDD’ Country? Global Environmental Change 20: 322–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Phelps, J., Webb, E. L., and Agrawal, A. (2010b). Does REDD+ Threaten to Recentralize Forest Governance? Science 328: 312–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. PNRPS (2010). (Philippine National REDD plus Strategy) The Philippine national REDD- plus strategy. Philippines REDD plus Strategy Team, DENR-FMB, and CoDe REDD-plus Philippines. pp. 97.Google Scholar
  50. Pulhin, J. M. (1996). Community Forestry: Paradoxes and Perspectives in Development Practice. PhD Thesis, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, ANU Digital Thesis, https://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/48018.
  51. Pulhin, J., and Dressler, W. (2009). People, Power and Timber: The Politics of Community-Based Forest Management. Journal of Environmental Management 91: 206–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pulhin, J. M., Inoue, M., and Enters, T. (2007). Three Decades of Community-Based Forest Management in the Philippines: Emerging Lessons for Sustainable and Equitable Forest Management. International Forestry Review 9(4): 865–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rose, C. (1994). Possession as the Origin of Property. The University of Chicago Law Review 52(1): 73–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rose, N., and Miller, P. (1992). Political Power Beyond the State: Problematics of Government. The British Journal of Sociology 43(2): 173–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sikor, T., and Lund, C. (2009). Access and Property: A Question of Power and Authority. Development and Change 40(1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. UN-REDD (2011). (United Nations REDD Program) Perspectives on REDD+ FAO, UNDP and UNEP. Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
  57. Warner, K. (1979). Walking on Two Feet: Tagbanuwa Adaptation to Philippine Society. Ph.D Dissertation, Anthropology Department, University of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  58. Warren, C. (1977). The Batak of Palawan: A Culture in Transition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  59. Ziegler, A., Phelps, J., Yuen, J., Webb, E., Lawrence, D., Fox, J., Bruun, T., Leisz, S., Ryan, C., Dressler, W., Mertz, O., Pascual, U., Padoch, C., and Koh, L. (2012). Carbon outcomes of major land-cover transitions in SE Asia: Great uncertainties and REDD+ policy implications. Global Change Biology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02747.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfram Dressler
    • 1
  • Melanie McDermott
    • 2
  • Will Smith
    • 3
  • Juan Pulhin
    • 4
  1. 1.Forest and Nature Conservation Policy GroupWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Human EcologyRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  3. 3.School of Social ScienceThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Department of Social Forestry and Forest Governance, College of Forestry and Natural ResourcesUniversity of the Philippines Los BañosLagunaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations