Pangnirtung Inuit and the Greenland Shark: Co-producing Knowledge of a Little Discussed Species
- 603 Downloads
When faced with a species that is seldom encountered or discussed, can local or indigenous people piece together their accumulated experience to make inferences about the ecology of that species? In this paper the Greenland shark acts as a model to study how the Inuit of southern Baffin Island are able to produce ecological knowledge. We examine experiential information, reflections, variations in knowledge, and sense-making related to the Greenland Shark, and present a knowledge co-production process based on heuristic reasoning. The process of knowledge co-production has similarities to fuzzy logic, and highlights the adaptability and versatility of indigenous knowledge systems to generate new understandings about the species and its role in the Arctic marine environment. Interactions between the Inuit and researchers can provide a forum to facilitate knowledge co-production, and can be used as a strategy to engage the Indigenous and traditional peoples in resource management and conservation.
KeywordsIndigenous knowledge Inuit Co-production of knowledge Fuzzy logic Greenland shark Arctic ecosystems Baffin Island Cumberland Sound Iqalukjuak
We thank the people of Pangnirtung for their contributions to the research and for opening the doors of their world. In particular, we are indebted to the late Noah and Alukie Metuq for home stay, Jaco Ishulutaq and the late Joeelee Papatsie for their teachings during hunting and fishing trips, and Andrew John Dialla for translation and acting as community liaison. C.J. Idrobo’s work was supported by a Manitoba Graduate Scholarship; the International Polar Year (IPY) program through a grant to Dr. Aaron Fisk, PI; and the Canada Research Chair (CRC) in Community-based Resource Management. F. Berkes’ work has been supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) and the Canada Research Chairs program (http://www.chairs.gc.ca).
- Bennet, J., and Rowley, S. (2004). Uqalurait: An Oral History of Nunavut. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal and Kingston.Google Scholar
- Berkes, F. (2012). Sacred Ecology, 3rd ed. Routledge, New York and London.Google Scholar
- Bernard, H. R. (2006). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Altamira Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
- Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 3rd ed. Sage, London.Google Scholar
- David, M., and Sutton, C. D. (2004). Social Research: The Basics. Sage, Thousand Oaks.Google Scholar
- Freeman, M. M. R. (1993). Traditional land users as a legitimate source of environmental expertise. In Williams, N. M., and Baines, G. (eds.), Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Wisdom for Sustainable Development. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, pp. 153–161.Google Scholar
- Hammersley, M., and Atkinson, P. (2005). Ethnography: Principles in Practice. Routledge, London and New York.Google Scholar
- Hart, E. J., and Amos, B. (2004). Learning about Marine Resources and their Use through Inuvialuit Oral History. Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre, Inuvik.Google Scholar
- Hay, K., Aglukark, D., Igutsaq, D., Ikkidluak, J., and Mike, M. (2000). Final Report on the Inuit Bowhead Knowledge Study, Nunavut, Canada. Nunavut Management Board, Iqaluit.Google Scholar
- Idrobo, C. J. (2008). The Pangnirtung Inuit and the Greenland shark. Master’s Thesis. Natural Resources Institute—University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. http://www.umanitoba.ca/institutes/natural_resources/canadaresearchchair/thesis/Idrobo.Masters%20Thesis.Feb%2009.pdf.
- Iskandar, J., and Ellen, R. (2007). Innovation, ‘hybrid’ knowledge and the conservation of relict rainforest in upland Banten. In Ellen, R. (ed.), Modern Crises and Traditional Strategies. Berghahn, New York, pp. 133–165.Google Scholar
- Kilabuk, P. (1998). A Study of Inuit Knowledge of the Southeast Baffin Beluga. Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Iqaluit.Google Scholar
- Laidler, G. J., Dialla, A., and Joamie, E. (2008). Human geographies of sea ice: freeze/thaw processes around Pangnirtung, Nunavut, Canada. Polar Record 44: 335–361.Google Scholar
- Marquardt, O., and Caulifield, R. A. (1996). Development of west Greenlandic markets for country foods since the 18th century. Arctic 49: 107–119.Google Scholar
- Nazarea, V. (1998). Cultural Memory and Biodiversity. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
- Noongwook, G., The Native Village of Savoonga, The Native Village of Gambell, Huntington, H. P., and George, J. C. (2007). Traditional knowledge of the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) around St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. Arctic 60: 47–54.Google Scholar
- Priest, H., and Usher, P. J. (2004). The Nunavut Wildlife Harvest Study. Final Report. Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Iqaluit.Google Scholar
- Randa, V. (1994). Inuillu uumajuillu: Les animaux dans les savoirs, les représentations et la langue des Iglulingmiut (Arcticque oriental canadien). Doctoral thesis. Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, University of Paris, Paris.Google Scholar
- Stevenson, M. G. (1997). Inuit, Whalers, and Cultural Persistence: Structure in Cumberland Sound and Central Inuit Social Organization. Oxford University Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
- Treble, M. (2008). Cumberland Sound Greenland halibut (turbot) inshore fishery. Canadian Science Advisory Report, 2008/040. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg.Google Scholar
- Weichselbaum, E., Benelam, B., and Costa, H.S. (2005). Traditional Foods in Europe. European Food Information Resource Consortium. Synthesis Report 6. 78 pp. Available at: http://www.eurofir.net/.
- Yano, K. J., Stevens, D., and Campagno, L. J. V. (2007). Distribution, reproduction and feeding of Greenland shark Somniosus (Somniosus) microcephalus, with notes on two other sleeper sharks, Somniosus (Somniosus) pacificus and Somniosus (Somniosus) antarcticus. Journal of Fish Biology 70: 374–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar