Human Ecology

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 323–346 | Cite as

Swidden Transformations and Rural Livelihoods in Southeast Asia

  • R. A. Cramb
  • Carol J. Pierce Colfer
  • Wolfram Dressler
  • Pinkaew Laungaramsri
  • Quang Trang Le
  • Elok Mulyoutami
  • Nancy L. Peluso
  • Reed L. Wadley
Article

Abstract

This paper explores the major interactions between the transformation of swidden farming and the pursuit of rural livelihoods in the uplands of Southeast Asia. The paper draws on selected literature, workshop reflections, and six case studies to describe the causal processes and livelihood consequences of swidden change. Household-level livelihood responses have included both the intensification and ‘dis-intensification’ of swidden land-use, the insertion of cash crops, the redeployment of household labour, and the taking on of broader (often non-rural) livelihood aspirations and strategies. At the community level there have been emerging institutional arrangements for management of land and forests, and varying degrees of participation in or resistance to government schemes and programs. Swidden change has led to the loss and also the reassertion, realignment, and redefinition of cultures and identities, with important implications for access to resources. The impacts of these changes have been varied. Cash crops have often improved livelihoods but complete specialisation for the market increases vulnerability. Thus swidden can still provide an important safety net in the face of market fluctuations. Improved access to markets and social provision of education and health care have mostly improved the welfare of previously isolated groups. However, growing differences within and between communities in the course of swidden transformations can leave some groups marginalized and worse off. These processes of differentiation can be accentuated by heavy-handed state interventions based on swidden stereotypes. Nevertheless, communities have not passively accepted these pressures and have mobilized to protect their livelihood assets and strategies. Thus swidden farmers are not resisting appropriate and supportive forms of development. They are adopting new practices and engaging with markets, but in many situations swidden is still important to their livelihood strategies, providing resilience in the face of turbulent change. Active involvement of local people is essential in planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating development and conservation programs in swidden lands. Positive market incentives and supportive government policies are better than standardised, top-down directives.

Keywords

Agrarian change Uplands Livelihood strategies Resource tenure Food security Agency 

References

  1. Arifin, B., and Hudoyo, A. (1998). An Economic Analysis of Shifting Cultivation and Bush-Fallow in Lowland Sumatra. Southeast Asia Policy Research Working Paper No. 1. ICRAF, Bogor.Google Scholar
  2. Barlow, C. (1997). Growth, Structural Change and Plantation Tree Crops: The Case of Rubber. World Development 25: 1589–1607. doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(97)00059-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow, C., and Jayasurija, S. K. (1986). Stages of Development in Smallholder Tree Crop Agriculture. Development and Change 17: 635–658. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.1986.tb00257.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biro Pusat Statistik (2002). Bungo Dalam Angka. Bappeda and Biro Pusat Statistik, Muara Bungo.Google Scholar
  5. Biro Pusat Statistik (2005). Bungo Dalam Angka. Bappeda and Biro Pusat Statistik, Muara Bungo.Google Scholar
  6. Boserup, E. (1965). The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure. Earthscan, London.Google Scholar
  7. Brookfield, H. C. (1972). Intensification and Disintensification in Pacific Agriculture: A Theoretical Approach. Pacific Viewpoint 13: 30–48.Google Scholar
  8. Bruun, T. B., de Neergaard, A., Lawrence, D., Ziegler, A. (2009). Environmental Consequences of the Demise in Swidden Agriculture in Southeast Asia: Carbon Storage and Soil Quality. Human Ecology this issueGoogle Scholar
  9. Chin, S. C. (1985). Agriculture and Resource Utilization in a Lowland Rainforest Kenyah Community. Sarawak Museum Journal Special Monograph No. 4. Sarawak Museum, Kuching.Google Scholar
  10. Christensen, H. (2002). Ethnobotany of the Iban and the Kelabit. Sarawak Forest Department; NEPCon Denmark; University of Aarhus, Denmark.Google Scholar
  11. Colfer, C. J. P. (2008). The Longhouse of the Tarsier, Changing Landscapes, Gender, and Wellbeing in Borneo. Borneo Research Council, Phillips, ME.Google Scholar
  12. Colfer, C. J. P., and Dudley, R. G. (1993). Shifting Cultivators of Indonesia: Managers or Marauders of the Forest? FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  13. Colfer, C. J. P., and Soedjito, H. (2003). Food, forest, and fields in a Bornean rain forest: Toward appropriate agroforestry development. In Padoch, C., and Peluso, N. (Eds.), Borneo in Transition: People, Forests, Conservation and Development. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 215–223.Google Scholar
  14. Colfer, C. J. P., Peluso, N. L., and Chin, S. C. (1997). Beyond Slash and Burn: Building on Indigenous Management of Borneo’s Tropical Rain Forests. New York Botanical Gardens, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Colfer, C. J. P., Wadley, R. L., Salim, A., and Dudley, R. G. (2000). Understanding Patterns of Resource Use and Consumption: A Prelude to Co-management. Borneo Research Bulletin 31: 29–88.Google Scholar
  16. Condominas, G. (2009). Anthropological Reflections on Swidden Change in Southeast Asia. Human Ecology. doi:10.1007/s10745-009-9248-z.
  17. Conklin, H. C. (1957). Hanunoo Agriculture: A Report on an Integral System of Shifting Cultivation in the Philippines. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.Google Scholar
  18. Cramb, R. A. (1985). The Importance of Secondary Crops in Iban Hill Rice Farming. Sarawak Museum Journal 34: 37–45.Google Scholar
  19. Cramb, R. A. (1988). Shifting Cultivation and Resource Degradation in Sarawak: Perceptions and Policies. Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 22: 115–149.Google Scholar
  20. Cramb, R. A. (1989). The Use and Productivity of Labour in Shifting Cultivation: An East Malaysian Case Study. Agricultural Systems 29: 97–115. doi:10.1016/0308-521X(89)90057-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cramb, R. A. (1993). Shifting Cultivation and Sustainable Agriculture in East Malaysia: A Longitudinal Case Study. Agricultural Systems 42: 209–226. doi:10.1016/0308-521X(93)90055-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cramb, R. A. (1998). Agriculture and Food Supplies in Sarawak during the Japanese Occupation. In Kratoska, P.H. (Ed.), Food Supplies and the Japanese Occupation in South-East Asia. Macmillan, London, pp. 135–166.Google Scholar
  23. Cramb, R. A. (2000). Soil Conservation Technologies for Smallholder Farming Systems in the Philippine Uplands: A Socio-Economic Evaluation. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra.Google Scholar
  24. Cramb, R. A. (2005). Farmers’ Strategies for Managing Acid Upland Soils in Southeast Asia: An Evolutionary Perspective. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 106: 69–87. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2004.07.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cramb, R. A. (2007). Land and Longhouse: Agrarian Transformation in the Uplands of Sarawak. NIAS, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  26. Cramb, R. A., and Culasero-Arellano, Z. (2003). Landcare and Livelihoods: The Promotion and Adoption of Conservation Farming Systems in the Philippine Uplands. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 1: 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dang, N. V. (2002). Land Issues in the Central Highlands. In National Center for Social and Human Sciences, Some Ideas Related to Socio-economic Development for Indigenous Villages in the Central Highlands. Social Science, Hanoi, pp. 325–352.Google Scholar
  28. Dove, M. R. (1983). Theories of Swidden Agriculture and the Political Economy of Ignorance. Agroforestry Systems 1: 85–99. doi:10.1007/BF00596351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dove, M. R. (1986). The ideology of agricultural development in Indonesia. In MacAndrews, C. (Ed.), Central Government and Local Development in Indonesia. Oxford University Press, Singapore, pp. 221–247.Google Scholar
  30. Dove, M. R. (1988). The ecology of intoxication among the Kantu’ of West Kalimantan. In Dove, M. (Ed.), The Real and Imagined Role of Culture in Development: Case Studies from Indonesia. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, pp. 139–192.Google Scholar
  31. Dove, M. R. (1993). Smallholder Rubber and Swidden Agriculture in Borneo: A Sustainable Adaptation to the Ecology and Economy of the Tropical Forest. Economic Botany 47: 136–147.Google Scholar
  32. Dressler, W. (2008). Old Thoughts in New Ideas: Tagbanua Resource Use and State Conservation Measures on Palawan Island, the Philippines. Ateneo de Manila University Press, Quezon City.Google Scholar
  33. Dressler, W. (2006). Co-opting Conservation: Migrant Resource Control and Access to National Park Management in the Philippine Uplands. Development and Change 37: 401–426. doi:10.1111/j.0012-155X.2006.00483.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dressler, W., and Turner, S. (2008). The Persistence of Social Differentiation in the Philippine Uplands. Journal of Development Studies 44: 1472–1492. doi:10.1080/00220380802360966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ducourtieux, O., Laffort, J. R., and Sacklokham, S. (2005). Land Policy and Farming Practices in Laos. Development and Change 36: 499–526. doi:10.1111/j.0012-155X.2005.00421.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eder, J. F. (1977). Agricultural Intensification and the Returns to Labour in the Philippine Swidden System. Pacific Viewpoint 18: 1–21.Google Scholar
  37. Eder, J. F. (1999). A Generation Later: Household Strategies and Economic Change in the Rural Philippines. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  38. Eder, J. F. (2006). Land Use and Economic Change in the Post-Frontier Upland Philippines. Land Degradation and Development 17: 149–158. doi:10.1002/ldr.721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ellis, F. (2000). Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  40. Elmer, M., and Shively, G. E. (1998). Irrigation, Employment, and the Environment in Southern Palawan. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 26: 112–135.Google Scholar
  41. Fox, J., Fujita, Y., Ngidang, D., Peluso, N. L., Potter, L., Sakuntaladewi, N., Sturgeon, J., Thomas, D. (2009). Policies, Political-Economy, and Swidden in Southeast Asia. Human Ecology. doi:10.1007/s10745-009-9240-7.
  42. Freeman, J. D. (1970). Report on the Iban. Athlone, London.Google Scholar
  43. Fujita, Y., and Phengsopha, K. (2008). The gap between policy and practice in lao PDR. In Colfer, C. J. P., Dahal, G. R., and Capistrano, D. (Eds.), Lessons from Forest Decentralization: Money, Justice and the Quest for Good Governance in Asia-Pacific. Earthscan/CIFOR, London, pp. 117–131.Google Scholar
  44. Garrity, D. P., Kummer, D. M., and Guiang, E. S. (1993). The Philippines. In Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. National Academy, Washington DC, pp. 549–623.Google Scholar
  45. Geddes, W. R. (1954). The land Dayaks of Sarawak. HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  46. Gerrits, R. V. (1994). Sustainable Development of a Village Land-Use System in Upland Sarawak, East Malaysia. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  47. Grandstaff, T. (1980). Shifting Cultivation in Northern Thailand: Possibilities for Development. The United Nations University, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  48. Grijpstra, B. G. (1978). The Transition from Shifting Cultivation to Cash Crops: Changes in a Land Dayak Village. Studies in Third World Societies 3: 113–138.Google Scholar
  49. Hansen, T. S., and Mertz, O. (2006). Extinction or Adaptation? Three Decades of Change in Shifting Cultivation in Sarawak. Land Degradation and Development 17: 135–148. doi:10.1002/ldr.720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hatch, T. (1982). Shifting Cultivation in Sarawak: A Review. Sarawak Department of Agriculture, Kuching.Google Scholar
  51. Jakobsen, J., Rasmussen, K., Leisz, S., Folving, R., and Nguyen, V. Q. (2007). The Effects of Land Tenure Policy on Rural Livelihoods and Food Sufficiency in the Upland Village of Que, North Central Vietnam. Agricultural Systems 94: 309–319. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2006.09.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jensen, E. (1974). The Iban and Their Religion. Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  53. Khong, D. (2002). Contribution to Socio-economic Study in the Central Highlands. In National Center for Social and Human Sciences, Some Ideas Related to Socio-economic Development for Indigenous Villages in the Central Highlands. Social Science, Hanoi.Google Scholar
  54. King, V. T. (1986). Land Settlement Schemes and the Alleviation of Rural Poverty in Sarawak, East Malaysia: A Critical Commentary. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 14: 71–99. doi:10.1163/080382486X00083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Laungaramsri, P. (2005). Swidden Agriculture in Thailand: Myths, Realities, and Challenges. Indigenous Affairs 2/05: 6–12.Google Scholar
  56. Le, D. (1976). Socialist Revolution in Vietnam. The National Political, Hanoi.Google Scholar
  57. Le, Q. T. (2007). Disrupted Social Transformation of Ethnic Minorities in the Central Highlands, Vietnam. MA thesis, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai.Google Scholar
  58. Leaman, D. J., Yusuf, R., Sangat-Roemantryo, H., and Arnason J.T. (1996). The Contribution of the Ethnobotanical Research to Socioeconomic and Conservation Objectives: An Example from the Apo Kayan Kenyah. In Padoch, C., and Peluso, N. (Eds.), Borneo in Transition. Oxford University Press, Singapore.Google Scholar
  59. Lestrelin, G., and Giordano, M. (2007). Upland Development Policy, Livelihood Change and Land Degradation: Interactions from a Laotian Village. Land Degradation and Development 18: 55–76.Google Scholar
  60. Li, T. M. (2002). Local Histories, Global Markets: Cocoa and Class in Upland Sulawesi. Development and Change 33: 415–437. doi:10.1111/1467-7660.00261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Manivong, V., and Cramb, R. A. (2008). The adoption of smallholder rubber production by shifting cultivators in Northern Laos: A Village Case Study. In Snelder, D. J., and Lasco, R. D. (Eds.), Smallholder Tree Growing for Rural Development and Environmental Services: Lessons from Asia. Springer, New York, pp. 117–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Masyhuri, Cramb, R. A. (1995). A socio-economic assessment of land-use practices in a transmigration settlement on acid soils in south Kalimantan, Indonesia. In Date, R. A., Grundon, N. J., Rayment, G. E., and Probert, M. E. (Eds.), Plant–Soil Interactions at Low pH: Principles and Management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 685–688.Google Scholar
  63. Mayer, J. (2003). Impacts of the East Kalimantan fires of 1982–1983 on village life, forest use, and land use. In Padoch, C., and Peluso, N. (Eds.), Borneo in Transition: People, Forests, Conservation and Development. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 232–268.Google Scholar
  64. McCarthy, J., and Cramb, R. A. (2009). Policy Narratives, Landholder Engagement, and Oil Palm Expansion on the Malaysian and Indonesian Frontiers, The Geographical Journal, in press.Google Scholar
  65. Mercer, D. E. (2004). Adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics: A review. In Nair, P. K. R., Rao, M. R., and Buck, L. E. (Eds.), New Vistas in Agroforestry. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 311–328.Google Scholar
  66. Mertz, O. (2002). The Relationship between Length of Fallow and Crop Yields in Shifting Cultivation: A Rethinking. Agroforestry Systems 55: 149–159. doi:10.1023/A:1020507631848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mertz, O., and Christensen, H. (1997). Land Use and Crop Diversity in Two Iban Communities, Sarawak, Malaysia. Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography 97: 98–110.Google Scholar
  68. Mertz, O., Wadley, R. L., Nielsen, U., Bruun, T. B., Colfer, C. J. P., de Neergaard, A., Jepsen, M. R., Martinussen, T., Zhao, Q., Noweg, G. T., and Magid, J. (2008). A Fresh Look at Shifting Cultivation: Fallow Length as an Uncertain Indicator of Productivity. Agricultural Systems 96: 75–84. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2007.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mertz, O., Padoch, C., Fox, J., Cramb, R. A., Leisz, S. J., Nguyen, T. L., Vien, T. D. (2009a). Swidden Change in Southeast Asia: Understanding Causes and Consequences. Human Ecology. doi:10.1007/s10745-009-9245-2.
  70. Mertz, O., Leisz, S., Heinimann, A., Rerkasem, K., Thiha, Dressler, W., Cu, P. V., Vu, K. C., Schmidt-Vogt, D., Colfer, C. J. P., Epprecht, M., Padoch, C., Potter, L. (2009b). Who Counts? The Demography of Swidden Cultivators. Human Ecology. doi:10.1007/s10745-009-9249-y.
  71. Myint, H. (1973). The Economics of the Developing Countries, 4th ed, Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  72. Nguyen Ngoc (2002). Some Problems Relating to Forestland and Villages in the Mountainous Area of Quang Nam. In National Center for Social and Human Sciences, Some Ideas Related to Socio-economic Development for Indigenous Villages in the Central Highlands. Social Science, Hanoi, pp. 353–372.Google Scholar
  73. Nguyen, T. D. (2005). Culture, society and people in the central highlands (Van Hoa, Xa Hoi va Con Nguoi Tay Nguyen). Social Science, Ho Chi Minh City.Google Scholar
  74. Nielsen, U., Mertz, O., and Noweg, G. T. (2006). The Rationality of Shifting Cultivation Systems: Labor Productivity Revisited. Human Ecology 34: 201–218. doi:10.1007/s10745-006-9014-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Novellino, D., and Dressler, W. (2009). The Role of ‘Hybrid’ NGOs in the Conservation and Development of Palawan Island, the Philippines. Society and Natural Resources, in press.Google Scholar
  76. Padoch, C., Harwell, E., and Susanto, A. (1998). Swidden, Sawah, and In-Between: Agricultural Transformation in Borneo. Human Ecology 26: 3–20. doi:10.1023/A:1018740615905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Padoch, C., Coffey, K., Mertz, O., Leisz, S. J., Fox, J., and Wadley, R. L. (2007). The Demise of Swidden in Southeast Asia? Local Realities and Regional Ambiguities. Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography 107: 29–41.Google Scholar
  78. Peluso, N. L. (1996). Fruit Trees and Family Trees in an Anthropogenic Rainforest: Property Rights, Ethics of Access, and Environmental Change in Indonesia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 38: 510–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Peluso, N. L. (2005). Seeing Properties in Land Use: Local Territorializations in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Geografisk Tidsskrift: Danish Journal of Geography 105: 1–16.Google Scholar
  80. Peluso, N. L., and Vandergeest, P. (2001). Genealogies of the Political Forest and Customary Rights in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. Journal of Asian Studies 60: 761–812. doi:10.2307/2700109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Potter, L. (1987). Degradation, innovation and social welfare in the Riam Kiwa Valley, Kalimantan, Indonesia. In Blaikie, P., and Brookfield, H. (Eds.), Land Degradation and Society. Methuen, London, pp. 164–176.Google Scholar
  82. Raintree, J. B., and Warner, K. (1986). Agroforestry Pathways for the Intensification of Shifting Cultivation. Agroforestry Systems 4: 39–54. doi:10.1007/BF01834701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rambo, A. T. (1998). The composite swiddening agroecosystem of the Tay ethnic minority of the Northwestern Mountains of Vietnam. In Patanothai, A. (Ed.), Land Degradation and Agricultural Sustainability: Case Studies from Southeast and East Asia, Regional Secretariat, The Southeast Asian Universities Agroecosystem Network (SUAN). Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, pp. 43–64.Google Scholar
  84. Rambo, A. T. (2005). Searching for Vietnam: Selected Writings on Vietnamese Culture and Society. Trans Pacific, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  85. Rerkasem, K., and Rerkasem, B. (1995). Montane Mainland South-East Asia: Agroecosystems in Transition. Global Environmental Change 5: 313–322. doi:10.1016/0959-3780(95)00065-V.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rerkasem, K., Lawrence, D., Padoch, C., Schmidt-Vogt, D., Ziegler, A. D., Bruun, T. B. (2009). Consequences of Swidden Transitions for Crop and Fallow Biodiversity in Southeast Asia. Human Ecology. doi:10.1007/s10745-009-9250-5.
  87. Roder, W. (1997). Slash-and-Burn Rice Systems in Transition: Challenges for Agricultural Development in the Hills of Northern Laos. Mountain Research and Development 17: 1–10. doi:10.2307/3673908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Roder, W. (2001). Slash-and-Burn Rice Systems in the Hills of Northern Lao PDR: Description, Challenges, and Opportunities. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos.Google Scholar
  89. Ruthenberg, H. (1980). Farming Systems in the Tropics, 3rd edn., Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  90. Salemink, O. (2003). Ethnography of Vietnam’s Central Highlanders. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  91. Sather, C. A. (1978). Iban Folk Mycology. Sarawak Museum Journal 26: 81–102.Google Scholar
  92. Sather, C. A. (1990). Trees and Tree Tenure in Paku Iban Society: The Management of Secondary Forest Resources in a Long-Established Iban Community. Borneo Review 1: 16–40.Google Scholar
  93. Sather, C. A. (1994). The one-sided one: Iban rice myths, agricultural ritual and notions of ancestry. In Walker, A. (Ed.), Rice in Southeast Asian Myth and Ritual. Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography vol. 10. Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, pp. 119–150.Google Scholar
  94. Schmidt-Vogt, D. (1998). Swidden Farming and Fallow Vegetation in Northern Thailand. Geoecological Research 8 Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  95. Schmidt-Vogt, D., Leisz, S., Mertz, O., Heinimann, A., Thiha, Messerli, P., Epprecht, M., Cu, P. V., Vu, K. C., Hardiono, M., Truong, D. M. (2009). An Assessment of Trends in the Extent of Swidden in Southeast Asia. Human Ecology. doi:10.1007/s10745-009-9239-0.
  96. Scott, J. C. (1998). Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  97. Seavoy, R. E. (1973). The Transition to Continuous Rice Cultivation in Kalimantan. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 65: 218–225. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1973.tb00920.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Spencer, J. E. (1966). Shifting Cultivation in Southeastern Asia. University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  99. Suyanto (1999). Evolution of Indigenous Land Tenure Institutions and Tree Resource Management in Sumatra. Ph.D. dissertation, Tokyo Metropolitan University.Google Scholar
  100. Thongmanivong, S., and Fujita, Y. (2006). Recent Land Use and Livelihood Transitions in Northern Laos. Mountain Research and Development 26: 237–244. doi:10.1659/0276-4741(2006)26[237:RLUALT]2.0.CO;2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Uchibori, M. (1984). Transformations of Iban social consciousness. In Turton, A., and Tanabe, S. (Eds.), History and Peasant Consciousness in South East Asia. National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, pp. 211–234.Google Scholar
  102. Vu, K. (1986). Some Ideas on Socio-economic Issues in the Central Highlands and the Duties of Social Science. In Some Issues on Socio-economy of the Central Highlands. Social Science, Hanoi.Google Scholar
  103. Wadley, R. L., and Colfer, C. J. P. (2004). Sacred Forest, Hunting, and Conservation in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Human Ecology 32: 313–338. doi:10.1023/B:HUEC.0000028084.30742.d0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wadley, R., and Mertz, O. (2005). Pepper in a time of crisis: Smallholder buffering strategies in Sarawak, Malaysia, and West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Agricultural Systems 85: 289–305. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2005.06.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wibawa, G., Hendratno, S., and van Noordwijk, M. (2005). Permanent smallholder rubber agroforestry systems in Sumatra, Indonesia. In Palm, C. A., Vosti, S. A., Sanchez, P. A., and Ericksen, P. J. (Eds.), Slash-and-Burn Agriculture: The Search for Alternatives. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 222–232.Google Scholar
  106. Zen, Z., Barlow, C., and Gondowarsito, R. (2005). Oil Palm in Indonesian Socio-economic Improvement: A Review of Options. Working Paper 11/2005. Department of Economics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra. (http://rspas.anu.edu.au/economics/publish/papers/wp2005/wp-econ-2005-11.pdf)
  107. Ziegler, A. D., Bruun, T. B., Lawrence, D., Nguyen, T. L. (2009). Environmental Consequences of the Demise in Swidden Agriculture in Montane Mainland SE Asia: Hydrology and Geomorphology. Human Ecology, this issue.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Cramb
    • 1
  • Carol J. Pierce Colfer
    • 2
  • Wolfram Dressler
    • 1
  • Pinkaew Laungaramsri
    • 3
  • Quang Trang Le
    • 4
  • Elok Mulyoutami
    • 5
  • Nancy L. Peluso
    • 6
  • Reed L. Wadley
    • 7
  1. 1.The University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for International Forestry ResearchBogorIndonesia
  3. 3.Chiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  4. 4.Center for Environment and Community DevelopmentHanoiVietnam
  5. 5.World Agroforestry CentreBogorIndonesia
  6. 6.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  7. 7.University of MissouriColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations