Human Ecology

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 611–622 | Cite as

Marine Protected Areas: A Governance System Analysis

  • Svein Jentoft
  • Thijs C. van Son
  • Maiken Bjørkan
Article

Abstract

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are promoted as an important marine ecosystem management tool. However, they are complex systems that, from a governance perspective, raise serious challenges with regard to their effectiveness. In this paper, drawing on recent contributions to the so-called “interactive governance theory,” we argue that marine and coastal governance is basically a relationship between two systems, a “governing system” and a “system-to-be-governed.” The former system is social: it is made up of institutions and steering mechanisms. The latter system is partly natural, partly social: it consists of an ecosystem, and the resources that this harbours, as well as a system of users and stakeholders who, among themselves, form political coalitions and institutions. We need to be concerned with the relationship and the interaction between the governing system and the system-to-be governed, which forms a system in its own right. Governance theory argues that both systems and their interactions share similar attributes—they are diverse, complex, dynamic and vulnerable. This raises serious concerns as to their governability. There may be limits to what the governing system can do, limits attributed to one or all three systems. But such limits are themselves issues and concerns for planning and institutional design. In this paper we present, in the form of a governance matrix, the relevant issues and concerns with regard to the governability of MPAs.

Key words

Marine protected areas governance system theory ecosystem management fisheries coastal zone resilience 

References

  1. Agardy, T. (1993). Accomodating Ecotourism in Multiple Use Planning of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas. Ocean and Coastal Management 20:219–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agardy, T., Bridgewater, P., Crosby, M., Day, J., Dayton, P., Kenchington, R., Laffoley, D. F., McConney, P., Murray, P., Parks J., and Peau. L. (2003). Dangerous targets? Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13:353–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcala, A. C., and Russ, G. R. (2006). No-take Marine Reserves and Reef Fisheries Management in the Philippines: A New People Power Revolution. Ambio 35:245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alder, J. (1996). Have Tropical Marine Protected Areas Worked? An Initial Analysis of Their Success. Coastal Management 24:97–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anonymous (2006). MPA News Vol.8, No.4 October (2006). http://depts.washington.edu/mpanews/issues.html#Oct%202006
  6. Aronson, R. B., and Precht, W. F. (2006). Conservation, Precaution, And Caribbean Reefs. Coral Reefs 25:441–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aswani, S., and Hamilton, R. (2004). The Value of Many Small vs. Few Large Marine Protected Areas in the Western Solomon Islands. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 16:3–14.Google Scholar
  8. Aswani, S and Lauer, M. (2006). Incorporating Fishermen’s Local Knowledge and Behavior into Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for Designing Marine Protected Areas in Oceania. Human Organization 65:81–102.Google Scholar
  9. Badalamenti, F., Ramos, A. A., Voultsiadou, E., Lizaso, L. J. S., D’Anna, G., Pipitone, C., Mas, J., Fernandez, J. A. R., Withmarsh, D., and Riggio, S. (2000). Cultural and Socio-Economic Impacts of Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas. Environmental Conservation 27:110–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bavinck, M., Chuenpagdee, R., Degnbol P., and Pasqual-Fernandéz, J. (2005). Challenges and Concerns Revisited. In Kooiman, J., Bavinck, M., Jentoft, S., and Pullin, R. (eds.), Fish for Life: Interactive Governance for Fisheries. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, pp. 303–324.Google Scholar
  11. Bennett, R. G. (1996). Challenges in Norwegian Coastal Zone Planning. GeoJournal 39:153–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bjørkan, M. (2005). Cooperatives and community failure in fisheries management: a Mexican case study on collective opportunism and social capital, MSc thesis, Norwegian College of Fisheries Science.Google Scholar
  13. Boudon, R. (1979). The Logic of Social Action, Polity Press, London.Google Scholar
  14. Brechin, S. R., Wilshusen, P. R., Fortwrangler C. L., and West, P. C. (2003) Contested Nature. Promoting International Biodiversity with Social Justice in the Twenty-First Century, State University of New York Press, Albany, US.Google Scholar
  15. Buanes, A., Jentoft, S., Maurstad, A., Søreng S. U., and Karlsen, G. R. (2005). Stakeholder Participation in Norwegian Coastal Zone Planning. Ocean & Coastal Management 48:658–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cantillanez, M., Avendano, M., Thouzeau G., and Le Pennec, M. (2005). Reproductive cycle of Argopecten purpuratus (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) in La Rinconada Marine Reserve (Antofagasta, Chile): response to environmental effects of El Niño and La Niña. Aquaculture 246:181–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carr, M., Neigel, J., Estes, J., Andelman, S., Warner R., and Largier, J. (2003). Comparing Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems: Implications for the Design of Coastal Reserves. Ecological Applications 13:90–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carter, D. W. (2003). Protected Areas in Marine Resource Management: Another Look at the Economics and Research Issues. Ocean and Coastal Management 46:439–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castilla, J. C. (1999). Coastal Marine Communities: Trends and Perspectives from Human-Exclusion Experiments. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:280–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Charles, A.(2001). Sustainable Fishery Systems, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.Google Scholar
  21. Christie, P., McCay, B. J., Miller, M. L., Lowe, C., White, A. T., Stoffle, R., Fluharty, D. L., McManus, L. T., Chuenpagdee, R., Pomeroy, C., Suman, D. O., Blount, B. G., Huppert, D., Eisma, R. L. V., Oracion, E., Lowry, K., and Pollnac, R. B. (2003). Towards Developing a Complete Understanding: A Social Science Research Agenda for Marine Protected Areas. Fisheries 28(12):22–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chuenpagdee, R. and Jentoft, S. (2007): Step zero for fisheries co-management: What precedes implementation. Marine Policy (in press).Google Scholar
  23. Chuenpagdee, R., Fraga J., and Euán-Avila, J. (2004). Progressing Towards Co-Management through Participatory Research. Society and Natural Resources 17:147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cicin-Sain, B., and Belfiore, S. (2005). Linking Marine Protected Areas to Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: A Review of Theory and Practice. Ocean and Coastal Management 48:847–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis, G. E. (2005). Science and Society: Marine Reserve Design for the California Channel Islands. Conservation Biology 19:1745–1751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Degnbol, P., Gislason, H., Hanna, S., Jentoft, S., Raakjaer Nielsen, J., Sverdrup-Jensen, S., and Clyde Wilson, D. (2006). Painting the Floor with a Hammer: Technical Fixes in Fisheries Management. Marine Policy 30:534–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dryzek, J. S. (1990). Discursive Democracy: Politics, Policy, and Political Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  28. Ehler, C. N. (2003). Indicators to Measure Governance Performance in Integrated Coastal Management. Ocean and Coastal Management 46:335–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elliott, G., Wiltshire, B., Manan, I., and Wismer, S. (2001). Community Participation in Marine Protected Area Management: Wakatobi National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Coastal Management 29:295–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fernández, M., and Castilla, J. C. (2005). Marine Conservation in Chile: Historical Perspective, Lessons, and Challenges. Conservation Biology 19(6):1752–1762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fiske, S. J. (1992). Sociocultural Aspects of Establishing Marine Protected Areas. Ocean & Coastal Management 18:25–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., and Holling, C. S. (2004). Regime Shifts, Resilience, and Biodiversity in Ecosystem Management. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35:557–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Friedlander, A., Sladek Nowlis, J., Sanchez, J. A., Apperdoorn, R., Usseglio, P., McCormick, C., Bejarano S., and Mitchelli-Chui, A. (2003). Designing Effective Marine Protected Areas in Seaflower Biosphere Reserve, Colombia, Based on Biological and Sociological Information. Conservation Biology 17:1769–1784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Griffith, D., and Valdéz Pizzini, M. (2002). Fishers at Work, Workers at Sea: A Puerto Rican Journey Through Labor and Refuge, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  35. Gupta., A. K., Sinha, R., Koradia, D., Patel, R., Parmar, M., Rohit, P., Patel, H., Patel, K., Chand, V. S., James, T. J., Chandam, A., Patel, M., Prakash, T. N., and Vivekanandan, P. (2003) Mobilizing Grassroots’ Technological Innovations and Traditional Knowledge, Values and Institutions: Articulating Social and Ethical Capital. Futures 35:975–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hilborn, R., Stokes, K., Maguire, J. J., Smith, T., Botsford, L.W., Mangel, M., Orensanz, J., Parma, A., Rice, J., Bell, J., Cochrane, K. L., Garcia, S., Hall, S. J., Kirkwood, G. P., Sainsbury, K., Stefansson, G., and Walters, C. (2004). When Can Marine Reserves Improve Fisheries Management? Ocean and Coastal Management 47:197–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hughes, T. P., Bellwood, D. R., Folke, C., Steneck, R. S., and Wilson, J. (2005). New Paradigms for Supporting the Resilience of Marine Ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:380–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jameson, S., Tupper M., and Ridler, J. (2002). The Three Screen Doors: Can Marine Protected Areas be Effective. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:1177–1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jentoft, S. (2000). Legitimacy and Disappointment in Fisheries Management. Marine Policy 24:141–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jentoft, S. (2004). Institutions in Fisheries: What They Are, What They Do, and How They Change. Marine Policy 28:137–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jentoft, S. (2007). Limits of governability? Institutional implications for ocean and coastal governance. Marine Policy 31(4):360–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kelleher, G. (1999). Guidelines for marine protected areas, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. xxiv +107pp.Google Scholar
  43. Kelleher, G., Bleakley, C., and Wells, S. (1995). A Global Respresentative System of Marine Protected Areas, The World Bank,Washington DC.Google Scholar
  44. Kooiman, J., and Chuenpagdee, R. (2005). Governance and governability. In Kooiman, J., Bavinck, M., Jentoft, S., and Pullin, R. (eds.), Fish for Life: Interactive Governance for Fisheries, University of Amsterdam Press, Amsterdam, pp. 325–350.Google Scholar
  45. Kooiman, J., Van Vliet M., and Jentoft, S. (eds.) (1999). Creative governance: opportunities for fisheries in Europe, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot.Google Scholar
  46. Kooiman, J., Banvick, M., Jentoft, S., and Pullin, R. (eds.). (2005). Fish for Life: Interactive Governance for Fisheries, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  47. Kooiman, J., Bavinck, M., Chuenpagdee, R., Mahon R., and Pullin, R. (2006). Governance and Governability for Coastal and Marine Resources: A Conceptual Introduction, MARE Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  48. Lane, M. B. (2006). Towards Integrated Coastal Management in Solomon Islands: Identifying Strategic Issues for Governance Reform. Ocean and Coastal Management 49:421–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lovejoy, T. E. (2006). Protected Areas: A Prism for a Changing World. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:329:333Google Scholar
  50. Lubchenco, J., Palumbi, S., Gaines S., and Andelman, S. (2003). Plugging a Hole in the Ocean: The Emerging Science of Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13:3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lynch, T. P. (2006). Incorporation of Recreational Fishing Effort into Design of Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology 20:1466–1476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mahon, R., Bavinck M., and Roy, N. (2005). Governance in action. In Kooiman, J., Bavinck, M., Jentoft, S., and Pullin, R. (eds.), Fish for Life: Interactive Governance for Fisheries, University of Amsterdam Press, Amsterdam, pp. 351–374.Google Scholar
  53. Mora, C., Andrefouet, S., Costello, M., Kranenburg, K., Rollo, A., Veron, J., Gaston, K., and Myers, R. (2006). Coral Reefs and the Global Network of Marine Protected Areas. Science 312:1750–1751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Morin Dalton, T. (2005). Beyond Biogeography: A Framework for Involving the Public in Planning of U.S. Marine Protected Areas. Conservation Biology 19:1392–1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Norse, E. (2003). Marine Reserves: The Best Option for our Oceans? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1:495–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Oracion, E. G., Miller, M. L., and Christie, P. (2005) Marine Protected Areas for Whom? Fisheries, Tourism, and Solidarity in a Philippine Community. Ocean and Coastal Management 48:393–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the Commons. The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  58. Pomeroy, C. (2003). Co-management and marine reserves in fisheries management. In Wilson, D., Raakjaer Nilsen J., and Degnbol, P. (eds), The Fisheries Co-Management Experience, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 213–227.Google Scholar
  59. Pomeroy, R. S., and Rivera-Guieb, R. (2006). Fishery Co-Management: A Practical Handbook, CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire.Google Scholar
  60. Pomeroy, R. S., Parks, J. E., and Watson, L. M. (2004). How is your MPA Doing? A Guidebook of Natural and Social Indicators for Evaluating Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  61. Pretty, J. N. (2003): Social Capital and the Collective Management of Resources. Science 302:1912–1914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roberts, C. M., Andelman, S., Branch, G., Bustamante, R. H., Castilla, J. C., Dugan, J., Halpern, B. S., Lafferty, K. D., Leslie, H., Lubchenco, J., McArdle, D., Possingham, H. P., Ruckelshaus, M., and Warner, R. R. (2003). Ecological Criteria for Evaluating Candidate Sites for Marine Reserves. Ecological Applications 13:S199–S214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rudd, M., Tupper, M., Folmer, H., and Van Kooten, C. (2003). Policy Analysis for Tropical Marine Reserves: Challenges and Directions. Fish and Fisheries 4:65–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sale, P., Cohen, R. K., Danolowicz, B. S., Jones, G. P., Kritzer, J. P., Lindeman, K. C., Planes, S., Polunin, N. V. C., Russ, G. R., Sadovy, Y. V., and Steneck, R. S. (2005). Critical Science Gaps Impede Use Of No-Take Fishery Reserves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:74–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sanchez-Velasco, L., Avalos-Garcia, C., Renteria-Cano M., and Shirasago, B. (2004). Fish Larvae Abundance and Distribution in the Central Gulf of California During Strong Environmental Changes (1997–1998 El Niño and 1998–1999 La Niña). Deep-Sea Research Part II—Topical Studies in Oceanography 51:711–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Scholz, A., Bonzon, K., Fujita, R., Benjamin, N., Woodling, N., Black, P., and Steinback, C. (2004). Participatory Socioeconomic Analysis: Drawing on Fishermen’s Knowledge for Marine Protected Area Planning in California. Marine Policy 28:335–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Scott, W. (1992). Organizations: Rational, Natural and Open Systems, Prentice-Hall International Inc, Englewood-Cliffs.Google Scholar
  68. Stanley, T. R. (1995). Ecosystem Management and the Arrogance of Humanism. Conservation Biology 9:255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stead, S., and McGlashan, D. (2005). Coastal and Marine National Park for Scotland in Partnership with Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Ocean and Coastal Management 49:22–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stinchcombe, A. (1965). Social structure and organization. In March, J. (ed.), Handbook of Organizations, Rand-McNally, Chicago, pp. 142–193.Google Scholar
  71. Sumaila, U., Guenette, J., Alder, D., Pollard, D., and Chuenpagdee, R. (1999). Marine protected areas and managing fished ecosystems, Christian Michelsens Institute. http://www.cmi.no/publications/1999/rep/r1999-4.pdf
  72. TFMPA (1999). Understanding and applying the principles of comprehensiveness, adequacy and representativeness for the NRSMPA, Version 3.1. Report prepared by the Action Team for the ANZECC Task Force on Marine Protected Areas, Marine Group, Environment Australia, http://www.deh.gov.au/coasts/mpa/nrsmpa/pubs/car-report.pdf
  73. Van der Schans, J. (2001). Governance of Marine Resources: Conceptual Clarifications and Two Case Studies, Eburon, Delft.Google Scholar
  74. Van Houtan, K. S. (2006). Conservation as Virtue: A Scientific and Social Process for Conservation Ethics. Conservation Biology 20:1367–1372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. White, P. A., Kalff, J., Rasmussen J. B., and Gasol, J. M. (1991). The Effect of Temperature and Algal Biomass on Bacterial Production and Specific Growth-Rate in Fresh-Water and Marine Habitats. Microbial Ecology 21:99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Worm, B., Barbier, E. B., Beaumont, N., Duffy, J. E., Folke, C., Halpern, B. S., Jackson, J. B. C., Lotze, H. K., Micheli, F., Palumbi, S. R., Sala, E., Selkoe, K. A., Stachowicz, J. J., and Watson, R. (2006). Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services. Science 314:787–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zamon, J. E., and Welch, D. W. (2005). Rapid Shift in Zooplankton Community Composition on the Northeast Pacific Shelf during the 1998–1999 El Niño La Niña Event. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62:133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Svein Jentoft
    • 1
  • Thijs C. van Son
    • 1
  • Maiken Bjørkan
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Marine Resource Management (MAREMA), Norwegian College of Fishery ScienceUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations