Coping Strategies in Livestock-dependent Households in East and Southern Africa: A Synthesis of Four Case Studies
- 885 Downloads
Integrated assessment seeks to combine models of the ecological as well as the social system to allow different scenarios to be tested in terms of their likely impacts on ecological functioning and household well-being. We outline such work undertaken in four case studies in East and southern Africa: pastoralist communities in northern Tanzania, agro-pastoralists in southern Kenya, communal and commercial ranchers in South Africa, and mixed crop-livestock farmers in western Kenya. Results from these case studies are synthesised to test the hypothesis that households’ capacity to adapt in the face of increasing external stresses is governed by flexibility in livelihood options. The results support this hypothesis. There is considerable variation in how households in these places cope with external stresses. Options include intensification, diversification, and increasing off-farm economic activities, and these depend on household objectives and attitudes as well as on access to natural resources, inputs and output markets. The results also indicate that generally it is the poorer households that can gain the most from implementing such options for coping and managing risk. Quantifying likely household and ecosystem impacts of different options is a crucial step in targeting appropriate technology, policy and adaptation interventions in the face of considerable system changes. We conclude with some research needs to improve integrated assessment tools that may allow us to represent more realistically the highly complex decision-making milieu of householders in sub-Saharan Africa who are dependent on ecosystem goods and services for a large part of their livelihoods.
Key wordsPastoralism mixed systems integrated assessment livelihoods Africa
This is a greatly expanded version of a presentation made at the 6th Open Meeting of the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, 9–13 October 2005, University of Bonn, Germany. We gratefully acknowledge funding provided as follows:
• To M. Coughenour and others by the Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program, supported by the Office of Agriculture and Food Security, Global Bureau, United States Agency for International Development under Grant no. PCE-G-98-00036-00 (Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania; Kajiado, Kenya).
• By the US National Science Foundation Biocomplexity program to N.T. Hobbs and others under grant 0119618 (Kajiado, Kenya).
• By NOAA’s Human Dimensions of Global Change Research (HDGCR) Program, grant number NA86GP0347, to K.A. Galvin and others (Northwest Province, RSA).
• By the Ecoregional Fund to Support Methodological Initiatives of the Government of The Netherlands, to P.K. Thornton and others (Vihiga, Kenya).
• By the US National Science Foundation, Decision Making Under Uncertainly, grant NSF SES-0345529, to K.A. Galvin and D. Ojima.
We thank three anonymous reviewers for constructive comments on an earlier draft. The errors and omissions that remain are our responsibility.
- Boone, R. B., and BurnSilver, S. (2002). Integrated assessment results to aid policy decisions in Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. POLEYC (Policy Options for Livestock-Based Livelihoods and Ecosystem Conservation) Project report, Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program, University of California, Davis, 79 pp. Online at http://www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/imas/prods/finals/NCA_Final_Jun_02.pdf
- Boone, R. B., and Coughenour, M. B. (2000). Integrated Management and Assessment System: Balancing Food Security, Conservation and Ecosystem Integrity. Using Savanna and SavView in ecosystem modelling. NREL, CSU, Fort Collins, CO.Google Scholar
- Boone, R. B., Galvin, K. A., Thornton, P. K., Swift, D. M., and Coughenour, M. B. (2006). Cultivation and conservation in Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. Human Ecology 34, doi 0.1007/s10745-006-9031-3.
- Bouwman, A. F., Kram, T., and Klein Goldewijk, K. (eds) (2006). Integrated Modelling of Global Environmental Change. An Overview of IMAGE 2.4. Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP), Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Online at http://www.mnp.nl/en /publications/2006/Integratedmodellingofglobalenvironmentalchange.AnoverviewofIMAGE2.4.html
- BurnSilver, S. (2007). Critical Factors Affecting Maasai Pastoralism: The Amboseli Region, Kajiado District, Kenya. PhD thesis, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University.Google Scholar
- Central Bureau of Statistics (2001). 1999 Population and housing census. Counting our people for development. Vol. I Population distribution by administrative areas and urban centres. Central Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance and Planning, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
- Central Bureau of Statistics (2003). Geographic dimensions of well-being in Kenya. Where are the poor? From districts to locations, Vol. 1 CBS, Ministry of Planning and National Development, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
- Coughenour, M. B. (1993). Savanna—A Spatial Ecosystem Model. Model Description and User Guide. NREL, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.Google Scholar
- Delgado, C., Rosegrant, M., Steinfeld, H., Ehui, S., and Courbois, C. (1999). Livestock to 2020: the next food revolution. Food, Agriculture and the Environment Discussion Paper 28. IFPRI/FAO/ILRI, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
- Department of Agriculture (1999). Atlas Products of the North West Province. Technical Supportive Services GIS Section, Department of Agriculture, North West Province, Potchefstroom, Republic of South Africa.Google Scholar
- Dixon, J., and Gulliver, A. (2001). Farming Systems and Poverty: Improving Farmers’ Livelihoods in a Changing World. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
- Ellis, F. (2004). Occupational diversification in developing countries and the implications for agricultural policy. Programme of Advisory and Support Services to DFID (PASS) Project No. WB0207, online at http://passlivelihoods.org.uk/site_files%5Cfiles%5Creports %5Cproject_id_218%5COccupational%20Diversification%20Paper_WB0207.pdf
- Ellis, J. E., and Coughenour, M. B. (1998). The Savanna integrated modelling system: an integrated remote sensing, GIS and spatial simulation modelling approach. In Squires, V. R., Sidahmed, A. E. (eds.), Drylands: Sustainable Use of Range Lands into the Twentyfirst Century (IFAD Series: Technical Report). pp. 97–106.Google Scholar
- Ellis, J., Reid, R., Thornton, P., and Kruska, R. (1999). Population growth and land-use change among pastoral people: Local processes and continental patterns. In E. David, F. David (eds), Proceedings of the VIth International Rangeland Congress, 19–23 July 1999. Townsville, Queensland, Australia, pp. 168–169.Google Scholar
- FAO (2006). Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Statistical Databases. Online at http://apps.fao.org
- Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., Holling, C.S., Walker, B., Bengtsson, J., Berkes, F., Colding, J., Danell, K., Falkenmark, M., Gordon, L., Kasperson, R., Kautsky, N., Kinzig, A., Levin, S., Mäler, K.-G., Moberg, F., Ohlsson, L., Olsson, P., Ostrom, E., Reid, W., Rockström, J., Savenije, H., and Svedin, U. (2002). Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformation. Scientific background paper on resilience for the process of The World Summit on Sustainable Development on behalf of The Environmental Advisory Council to the Swedish Government. Ministry of the Environment, Stockholm, Sweden. Online at http://www.sou.gov.se/mvb/pdf/resiliens.pdf
- Galaty, J. G. (1994). Having Land in Common: The Subdivision of Maasai Group Ranches in Kenya. Nomadic Peoples 34/35: 109–122.Google Scholar
- Gichohi, H., Gakahu, C., and Mwangi, E. (1996). Savannah ecosystems. In T. R. McClanahan, T. P. Young (eds), East African Ecosystems and Their Conservation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 243–270.Google Scholar
- GoK (Government of Kenya), (2001). 1999 Population and Housing Census. Volume 1. Counting our People for Development. Population Distribution by Administrative Areas and Urban Centres pp. 446, Ministry of Finance and Planning, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
- GoK (Government of Kenya), 2003. Geographic dimensions of well-being in Kenya. Volume 1: Where are the Poor? From Districts to Locations. Ministry of Planning and National Development. Central Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
- Herrero, M., and Fawcett, R. H. (2002). A generic household model for assessing the impact of interventions in crop-livestock systems. Proceedings of the 17th Symposium of the International Farming Systems Association, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, p 106, 17–20 November.Google Scholar
- Herrero, M., Fawcett, R. H., and Jessop, N. S. (2002). Predicting intake and nutrient supply for tropical and temperate diets for ruminants using a simple dynamic model of digestion. Internal Report. Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, Scotland. p 39.Google Scholar
- Hobbs, N. T., Reid, R. S., Galvin, K. A., and Ellis, J. E. (2007). Fragmentation of arid and semi-arid ecosystems: implications for people and animals. In K. A. Galvin, R. S. Reid, R. H. Behnke, and N. T. Hobbs (eds), Fragmentation in Semi-arid and Arid Landscapes: Consequences for Human and Natural Systems. In press.Google Scholar
- Hudson, J. W. (2002). Response to climate variability in the livestock sector in the North-West Province, South Africa. MA thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.Google Scholar
- IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2001). Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
- Kijazi, A., Mkumbo, S., and Thompson, D. M. (1997). Human and livestock population trends. In D. M. Thompson (Ed.), Multiple Land-use: The Experience of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, pp. 167–180.Google Scholar
- Kristjanson, P., Radeny, M., Nkedyanye, D., Kruska, R., Reid, R., Gichohi, H., Atieno, F., and Sanford, R. (2002). Valuing alternative land use options in the Kitengela wildlife dispersal area of Kenya. ILRI Impact Assessment Series 10. International Livestock Research Institute and African Conservation Centre Report. ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya. 61 pp.Google Scholar
- Moehlman, P. D., Runyoro, V. A., and Hofer, H. (1997). Wildlife population trends in the Ngorongoro Crater. In D.M. Thompson (ed.), Multiple Land-use: The Experience of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, pp. 59–69.Google Scholar
- NCAA (Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority) (1999). 1998 aerial boma count, 1999 people and livestock census, and human population trend between 1954 and 1999 in the NCA. Research and Planning Unit, NCAA, Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.Google Scholar
- O’Brien, K., and Vogel, C. (2003). A future for forecasts? In K. O’Brien, C. Vogel (eds), Coping with Climate Variability: The Use of Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Southern Africa. Ashgate, Aldershot, pp 197–211.Google Scholar
- Ole Parkipuny, M. S. (1997). Pastoralism, conservation and development in the Greater Serengeti Region. In D. M. Thompson (ed), Multiple Land-Use: The Experience of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, IUCN, pp. 143–168.Google Scholar
- Olson J. M., Alagarswamy G., Andresen J., Campbell D. J., Ge J., Huebner M., Lofgren B., Lusch D. P., Moore N., Pijanowski B. C., Qi J., Thornton P. K., Torbick N. and Wang J. (2007). Integrating diverse methods to understand climate-land interactions in East Africa. GeoForum. In press.Google Scholar
- Raiffa, H. (1968). Decision Analysis. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.Google Scholar
- Ritchie, J. T., Singh, U., Godwin, D. C., and Bowen, W. T. (1998). Cereal growth, development and yield. In G. Y. Tsuji, G. Hoogenboom, P. K. Thornton (eds), Understanding Options for Agricultural Production, Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 79–98.Google Scholar
- Sayer, J. A., and Campbell, B. (2001). Research to integrate productivity enhancement, environmental protection, and human development. Conservation Ecology 5(2): 32. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss2/art32
- Scholes, R. J., and Biggs, R. (eds) (2004). Ecosystem Services in Southern Africa: A Regional Assessment. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa, 84 pp (a contribution to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). Online at http://www.millenniumassessment.org
- Simms, A., Magrath, J., and Reid, H. (2004). Up in Smoke? Threats From, and Responses to, the Impact of Global Warming on Human Development. IIED and NEF, London.Google Scholar
- Staal, S. J., Ehui, S., and Tanner, J. C. (2001). Livestock-environment interactions under intensifying production. In D. R. Lee, C. B. Barrett (eds.), Tradeoffs or Synergies? Agricultural Intensification, Economic Development and the Environment, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 345–364.Google Scholar
- Stainforth, D. A., Aina, T., Christensen, C., Collins, M., Faull, N., Frame, D. J., Kettleborough, J. A., Knight, S., Martin, A., Murphy, J. M., Piani, C., Sexton, D., Smith, L. A., Spicer, R. A., Thorpe, A. J., and Allen, M. R. (2005). Uncertainty in Predictions of the Climate Response to Rising Levels of Greenhouse Gases. Nature 433: 403–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thomas, D., and Rangnekar, D. (2004). Responding to the increasing global demand for animal products: implications for the livelihoods of livestock producers in developing countries. In: E. Owen, T. Smith, M. A. Steele, S. Anderson, A. J. Duncan, M. Herrero, J. D. Leaver, C. K. Reynolds, J. I. Richards, J. C. Ku-Vera (eds.), Responding to the Livestock Revolution: The Role of Globalisation and Implications for Poverty Alleviation. British Society of Animal Science Publication 33, Nottingham University Press, 1–35.Google Scholar
- Thornton, P. K., Fawcett, R. H., Galvin, K. A., Boone, R. B., Hudson, J. W., and Vogel, C. H. (2004). Evaluating Management Options that Use Climate Forecasts: Modelling Livestock Production Systems in the Semi-arid Zone of South Africa. Climate Research 26: 33–42.Google Scholar
- URT (United Republic of Tanzania) (2003). 2002 Population and Housing Census General Report. Government Printers, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.Google Scholar
- Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., and Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social-ecological Systems. Ecology and Science 9 (2): 5. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art5