Salal Harvester Local Ecological Knowledge, Harvest Practices and Understory Management on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington
- 403 Downloads
Despite growing interest in traditional and local ecological knowledge for conservation and resource management, the role of migrant resource users is largely unexplored. Challenging many assumptions about what constitutes “local knowledge,” migrant and immigrant harvesters of non-timber forest products on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington possess useful ecological knowledge of overstory–understory relationships and how forestry practices affect understory biological and commercial production. Harvesters of salal (Gaultheria shallon), a shrub used in the multi-million dollar floral greens industry, were interviewed in Mason County, Washington in 2001–2003. Interviews revealed that harvesters possess different kinds of resource management knowledge depending on whether they are experienced harvesters or more recent newcomers to the area. These differences may also correlate with differences in their harvesting practices. Understanding how resource management knowledge differs between experienced and newcomer harvesters can inform forest managers in their efforts to develop effective management and permitting policies for floral greens and other non-timber forest resources in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.
Key wordsLocal ecological knowledge nontimber forest products sustainable resource management Gaultheria shallon (salal) Pacific Northwest harvest.
I am indebted to the salal harvesters who shared their time, knowledge and energy with me for many hours in the rainy PNW woods: Juan, Francisco, Marta, Ricardo, Eloina, Antonio, Juan, Patty, Bob, Leo and Rogelio. I owe a special debt of gratitude to Don Collins and Jim Freed for their never-ending knowledge and support of this work. Thank you to Louise Fortmann for her support and guidance of the research. Thank you to Adriana Sulak, Nancy Turner and three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments as well.
Research for this paper was supported in part by the U.S. Community Forestry Research Fellowship Program of the Ford Foundation, the Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at University of California, Berkeley, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the U.S.D.A. Forest Service.
I wish to thank Fikret Berkes and Nancy Turner for acceptance of an earlier version of this paper in their symposium “How does resource management knowledge develop” at the 2004 Meeting of the International Association of the Study of Common Property in Oaxaca, Mexico.
- Baker, M., and Kusel, J. (2003). Community Forestry in the United States: Past Practice, Crafting the Future, Island, Washington, District of Columbia.Google Scholar
- Ballard, H. (2004). Impacts of harvesting Salal (Gaultheria shallon) on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington: Harvester Knowledge, Science, and Participation. Dissertation. Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley. (213 pages).Google Scholar
- Berkes, F. (1999). Sacred Ecology. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management, Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia and London, UK.Google Scholar
- Berkes, F., and Folke, C. (1998). Linking social and ecological systems for resilience and sustainability. In Berkes, F., and Folke, C. (eds.), Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
- Borchers, J., and Kusel, J. (2003). Toward a civic science for community forestry. In Baker, M., and Kusel, J. (eds.), Community Forestry in the United States: Past Practice, Crafting the Future, Island, Washington, District of Columbia.Google Scholar
- Bromley, D. W. (1994). Economic dimensions of community-based conservation. In Western, D., and Wright, R. M. (eds.), Natural Connections: Perspectives in Community Based Conservation, Island, Washington, District of Columbia, pp. 428–447.Google Scholar
- Brown, B. A., and Marin-Hernandez, A. (2000). Voices from the Woods: Lives and Experiences of Non-Timber Forest Workers, Jefferson Center for Education and Research, Wolf Creek, California.Google Scholar
- Everett, Y. (1997). Guide to Selected Non-Timber Forest Products of the Hayfork Adaptive Management Area, Shasta-Trinity and Six Rivers National Forests, California. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-162, 1997.Google Scholar
- Folke, C., Berkes, F., and Colding, J. (1998). Ecological practices and social mechanisms for building resilience and sustainability. In Berkes, F., and Folke, C. (eds.), Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 414–436.Google Scholar
- Gadgil, M., Berkes, F., and Folke, C. (1993). Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation. Ambio 22: 151–156.Google Scholar
- Gilchrist, H. G., and Robertson, G. J. (2000). Observations of marine birds and mammals wintering at Polynyas and ice edges in the Belcher Islands, Nunavut, Canada. Arctic 53(1): 61–68.Google Scholar
- Gunderson, L., Holling, C. S., and Light, S. (1995). Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Hansis, R. (2002). Case study, workers in the woods: Confronting rapid change. In Jones, E. J., McLain, R. J., and Weigand, J. (eds.), Nontimber Forest Products in the United States, University of Kansas, Kansas.Google Scholar
- Henderson, J. A., Peter, D. H., Lester, R. D., and Shaw, D. C. (1989). Forested Plant Associations of the Olympic National Forest. Pacific Northwest Region Technical Paper 001-88. USDA Forest Service, Portland, 502 pp.Google Scholar
- Holling, C. S. (1978). Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management, Wiley, London.Google Scholar
- Holling, C. S., Berkes, F., and Folke, C. (1998). Science, sustainability and resource management. In Berkes, F., and Folke, C. (eds.), Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 342–362.Google Scholar
- Jones, E. J., McLain, R. J., and Weigand, J. (eds.) (2002). Nontimber Forest Products in the United States. University Press of Kansas, Kansas.Google Scholar
- Kerns, B. K., Pilz, D., Ballard, H., and Alexander, S. J. (2003). Managing for nontimber forest resources. In Johnson, A. C., Haynes, W., and Monserud, R. A. (eds.), Compatible Forest Management: Case Studies from Alaska and the Pacific Northwest, Kluwer, Boston, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
- Klooster, D. J. (2002). Toward adaptive community forest management: Integrating local forest knowledge with scientific forestry. Economic Geography 78(1): 43–70.Google Scholar
- Kohm, K. A., and Franklin, J. F. (1997). Creating a Forestry for the 21st Century: The Science of Ecosystem Management, Island, Washington, District of Columbia.Google Scholar
- Lee, K. N. (1993). Compass and Gyroscope: Integrating Science and Politics for the Environment, Island, Washington, District of Columbia.Google Scholar
- Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R., and Walters, C. (1993). Uncertainty, resource exploitation and conservation: lessons from history. Science 260(17): 36.Google Scholar
- Lynch, K., and McLain, R. J. (2003). Floral Greens and Access Issues on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. General Technical Report.Google Scholar
- Mallory, M. L., Gilchrist, H. G., Fontaine, A. J., and Akearok, J. A. (2003). Local ecological knowledge of ivory gull declines in Arctic Canada. Arctic 56(3): 293–298.Google Scholar
- Mason County Chamber of Commerce (2005). Job Market: A SnapShot. [http://www.sheltonchamber.org/x174.xml] accessed April 4, 2005.
- McCay, B. J., and Acheson, J. M. (1987). The Question of the Commons. The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources, University of Arizona, Tuscon.Google Scholar
- McLain, R. J., and Jones, E. J. (1997). Challenging ‘community’ definitions in sustainable natural resource management: The case of wild mushroom harvesting in the USA. IIED Gatekeeper Series no. SA68: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
- Molina, R., Vance, N., Weigand, V., Pilz, D., and Amaranthus, M. (1998). Special forest products: Integrating social, economic, and biological considerations into ecosystem management. In Kohm, K. A., and Franklin, J. F. (eds.), Creating a Forestry for the 21st Century: The Science of Ecosystem Management, Island, Washington, District of Columbia.Google Scholar
- Murphree, M. (1993). Communities as resource management institutions. IIED Gatekeeper Series No. 36: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
- Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Pinkerton, E. (1998). Integrate management of a temperate montane forest ecosystem through wholistic forestry: A British Columbia Example. In Berkes, F., and Folke, C. (eds.), Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
- Savage, M. (1995). Pacific northwest special forest products: An industry in transition. Journal of Forestry 93(3): 6–11.Google Scholar
- Schlosser, W., Blatner, K., and Chapman, R. (1991). Economic and marketing implications of special forest products harvest in the coastal pacific northwest. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 6(3): 67–72.Google Scholar
- Shannon, M. A., and Antypas, A. R. (1996). Civic science is democracy in action. Northwest Science 70(1): 66–69.Google Scholar
- Shindler, B., and Cheek, K. A. (1999). Integrating citizens in adaptive management: A propositional analysis. Conservation Ecology 3(1): 9.Google Scholar
- Stevenson, M. G. (1996). Indigenous knowledge in environmental assessment. Arctic 49(3): 278–291.Google Scholar
- Usher, P. J. (2000). Traditional ecological knowledge in environmental assessment and management. Arctic 53(2): 183–193.Google Scholar
- Von Hagen, B., and Fight, R. (1999). Opportunities for conservation-based development of nontimber forest products in the Pacific Northwest, General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-473. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
- Walters, C. (1986). Adaptive Managment of Renewable Resources, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
- Washington Department of Natural Resources (2003). Sustainable forestry Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Chapter 3. [www.dnr.wa.gov/htdocs/fr/sales/sustainharvest/deis_section/chap_3.pdf] accessed March 21, 2005.
- Washington Native Plant Society (2004). West Lowland Forest Ecoystem. [http://www3.thingstodo.com/states/WA/nationalparks/olympic/ecology.htm] accessed March 21, 2005.
- Western, D., and Wright, M. (eds.), (1994). Natural Connections: Perspectives in Community-Based Conservation. Island, Washington, District of Columbia.Google Scholar