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Cavitation in left ventricular assist device patients: a potential early sign of pump thrombosis

  • Marco Zuin
  • Gianluca RigatelliEmail author
  • Gabriele Braggion
  • Daniela Bacich
  • Thach Nguyen
Article
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

Mechanical ventricular support with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has emerged as a durable and safe therapy, both as bridge-to-transplant (BTT) or destination therapy (DT), in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). However, the occurrence of pump thrombosis (PT) still represents a serious complication, especially when LVADs of first or second generation are implanted. During the latest years, some investigations have recognized the occurrence of cavitation, evidenced through transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), as a potential early and indirect sign of PT. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the available data on the occurrence of cavitation in LVAD patients as an early potential marker of PT, also presenting the hemodynamic mechanisms involved.

Keywords

Left ventricular assist device Pump thrombosis Cavitation Microbubbles Echocardiography 

Abbreviations

BTT

Bridge-to-transplant

DT

Destination therapy

HITS

High-intensity transient signals

LVAD

Left ventricular assist device

LVEDD

Left ventricular end diastolic diameter

P

Pressure

PT

Pump thrombosis

PV

Vapor pressure

TCD

Transcranial Doppler

TTE

Transthoracic echocardiography

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have conflict of interest to declare

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Internal and Cardiopulmonary Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of FerraraFerraraItaly
  2. 2.Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Endoluminal Interventions UnitRovigo General HospitalRovigoItaly
  3. 3.Division of CardiologyAdria General HospitalRovigoItaly
  4. 4.Department of CardiologyPorto Viro HospitalRovigoItaly
  5. 5.Cardiovascular ResearchMethodist HospitalMerrillvilleUSA

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