Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 237–253 | Cite as

Redefining biomarkers in heart failure

  • Michele Correale
  • Ilenia Monaco
  • Natale Daniele Brunetti
  • Matteo Di Biase
  • Marco Metra
  • Savina Nodari
  • Javed Butler
  • Mihi Gheorghiade
  • On behalf of Master Program Students on Drug Development for Heart Failure


Heart failure (HF) is the end result of many different cardiac and non-cardiac abnormalities leading to a complex clinical entity. In this view, the use of biomarkers in HF should be deeply reconsidered; indeed, the same biomarker may carry a different significance in patients with preserved or reduced EF. The aim of this review is to reconsider the role of biomarkers in HF, based on the different clinical characteristics of this syndrome. The role of cardiac and non-cardiac biomarkers will be reviewed with respect of the different clinical manifestations of this syndrome.


Biomarkers Heart failure Preserved ejection fraction Physiopathology 


Compliance with ethical standards

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data. It is a review.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Correale
    • 1
  • Ilenia Monaco
    • 1
  • Natale Daniele Brunetti
    • 1
  • Matteo Di Biase
    • 1
  • Marco Metra
    • 2
  • Savina Nodari
    • 2
  • Javed Butler
    • 3
  • Mihi Gheorghiade
    • 4
  • On behalf of Master Program Students on Drug Development for Heart Failure
  1. 1.Cardiology DepartmentUniversity of FoggiaFoggiaItaly
  2. 2.Cardiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences, and Public HealthUniversity of BresciaBresciaItaly
  3. 3.Heart Institute Stony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA
  4. 4.Center for Cardiovascular InnovationNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

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