Clinical use of novel biomarkers in heart failure: towards personalized medicine
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Biomarkers play an important role in heart failure. They provide us information about the mechanisms involved in specific types of heart failure and can identify patients at higher risk. Although the majority of biomarker studies in heart failure focus on their prognostic value, the clinical applicability of prognostication in heart failure needs to be established. However, biomarkers can be used for many other purposes. For example, they can help us with the diagnosis of heart failure, and they can be used to select our therapy, leading to personalized tailored therapy. Finally, when biomarkers are causally involved in the disease process, they can even become targets for therapy. The present paper reviews the established and potential value of the novel heart failure biomarkers, mid-regional atrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, growth differentiation factor 15, galectin-3, renal tubular damage markers, and microRNAs. Their potential clinical value will be discussed and compared with the reference markers, the natriuretic peptides.