Animal models of insulin resistance and heart failure
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The incidence of heart failure (HF) and diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing and is associated with poor prognosis. In spite of the advances in therapy, HF remains a major health problem with high morbidity and mortality. When HF and diabetes coexist, clinical outcomes are significantly worse. The relationship between these two conditions has been studied in various experimental models. However, the mechanisms for this interrelationship are complex, incompletely understood, and have become a matter of considerable clinical and research interest. There are only few animal models that manifest both HF and diabetes. However, the translation of results from these models to human disease is limited, and new models are needed to expand our current understanding of this clinical interaction. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of insulin signaling and insulin resistance, the clinical association between insulin resistance and HF, and its proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Finally, we discuss available animal models of insulin resistance and HF and propose requirements for future new models.