Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 177–190

Inflammatory activation: cardiac, renal, and cardio-renal interactions in patients with the cardiorenal syndrome

  • Paolo C. Colombo
  • Anjali Ganda
  • Jeffrey Lin
  • Duygu Onat
  • Ante Harxhi
  • Julia E. Iyasere
  • Nir Uriel
  • Gad Cotter
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10741-011-9261-3

Cite this article as:
Colombo, P.C., Ganda, A., Lin, J. et al. Heart Fail Rev (2012) 17: 177. doi:10.1007/s10741-011-9261-3

Abstract

Although inflammation is a physiologic response designed to protect us from infection, when unchecked and ongoing it may cause substantial harm. Both chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are known to cause elaboration of several pro-inflammatory mediators that can be detected at high concentrations in the tissues and blood stream. The biologic sources driving this chronic inflammatory state in CHF and CKD are not fully established. Traditional sources of inflammation include the heart and the kidneys which produce a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to neurohormones and sympathetic activation. However, growing evidence suggests that non-traditional biomechanical mechanisms such as venous and tissue congestion due to volume overload are also important as they stimulate endotoxin absorption from the bowel and peripheral synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Both during the chronic phase and, more rapidly, during acute exacerbations of CHF and CKD, inflammation and congestion appear to amplify each other resulting in a downward spiral of worsening cardiac, vascular, and renal functions that may negatively impact patients’ outcome. Anti-inflammatory treatment strategies aimed at attenuating end organ damage and improving clinical prognosis in the cardiorenal syndrome have been disappointing to date. A new therapeutic paradigm may be needed, which involves different anti-inflammatory strategies for individual etiologies and stages of CHF and CKD. It may also include specific (short-term) anti-inflammatory treatments that counteract inflammation during the unsettled phases of clinical decompensation. Finally, it will require greater focus on volume overload as an increasingly significant source of systemic inflammation in the cardiorenal syndrome.

Keywords

Cardiorenal syndrome Inflammation Cytokines Congestive heart failure Chronic kidney disease 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo C. Colombo
    • 1
  • Anjali Ganda
    • 2
  • Jeffrey Lin
    • 3
  • Duygu Onat
    • 1
  • Ante Harxhi
    • 1
  • Julia E. Iyasere
    • 3
  • Nir Uriel
    • 1
  • Gad Cotter
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical CenterCollege of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Columbia University Medical CenterCollege of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical CenterCollege of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Momentum Research Inc.DurhamUSA

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