Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 227–233

The molecular fingerprint of cardiac dyssynchrony and cardiac resynchronization therapy



To date, cardiac resynchronization therapy remains the only treatment that enhances systolic function while improving long-term outcome and survival. Here, we review the molecular alterations associated with dyssynchronous heart failure and their reversibility induced by cardiac resynchronization therapy. We focus upon the molecular portrait of dyssynchronous heart failure and how cardiac resynchronization therapy influences electrophysiologic, metabolic and adrenergic pathways.


Dyssynchronous heart failure Molecular portrait Gene expression Cardiac resynchronization therapy 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Vanderheyden
    • 1
  • Chris Vrints
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jozef Bartunek
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardiovascular Center, Onze Lieve VrouwziekenhuisAalstBelgium
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium

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