Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 209–217 | Cite as

Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) pharmacogenomics: implications in heart failure management



Blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) with ACE inhibitors has been a cornerstone of heart failure therapy for over 15 years. More recently, further blockade of RAAS with aldosterone antagonists and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) has been studied. While these therapies have certainly improved outcomes in the treatment of heart failure, morbidity and mortality remain extremely high. Furthermore, polypharmacy and complex regimens of seven medications on average is the norm for management of heart failure. This results in increased costs, patient burden, and uncertainty as to the best course of therapy. The ability to personalize patients’ therapeutic regimens using pharmacogenomics has the potential of providing more effective and efficient use of RAAS-modulating medications. This review highlights the implications of major RAAS pharmacogenetic studies, while outlining future directions for translation to practice.


ACE inhibitors Angiotensin receptor blockers Aldosterone antagonists Pharmacogenetics Pharmacogenomics Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy Practice and Center for PharmacogenomicsUniversity of Florida College of PharmacyGainesvilleUSA

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