Advertisement

Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 87–90 | Cite as

An introduction to acute heart failure syndromes: definition and classification

  • Gerasimos FilippatosEmail author
  • Faiez Zannad
Article

Acute Heart Failure (AHF) is defined as a change in heart failure signs and symptoms resulting in the need for urgent therapy. Although AHF is associated with a poor prognosis only recently guidelines from Europe and USA [1, 2] have begun to address management of AHF syndromes (AHFS), and the clinical trial data supporting the recommendations are limited. Moreover, most of these clinical trials failed to show a decrease in mortality. A potential explanation is the heterogeneity of AHFS and the lack of a classification which could help design appropriate treatment algorithms.

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines [ 1] were the first to classify patients with AHFS into distinct clinical conditions. These include: i) acute decompensated heart failure, de novo or decompensated chronic heart failure ii) hypertensive acute heart failure iii) pulmonary edema iv) cardiogenic shock v) high output failure and vi) right heart failure (Table  1). However, the ESC classification is...

Keywords

Acute heart failure Acute heart failure definition Acute heart failure classification 

References

  1. 1.
    Nieminen MS, Bohm M, Cowie MR et al (2005) ESC Committe for Practice Guideline (CPG) Executive summary of the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute heart failure: the task force on acute heart failure of the European society of cardiology. Eur Heart J 26:384–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heart Failure Society of America (2006) HFSA 2006 Comprehensive heart failure Practice Guideline. J Card Fail 12:e1–122Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gheorghiade M, Zannad F, Sopko G et al (2005) International working group on acute heart failure syndromes. Acute heart failure syndromes: current state and framework for future research. Circulation 112:3958–3968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alla F, Zannad F, Filippatos G (2007) Epidemiology of acute heart failure syndromes. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Luca L, Fonarow GC, Adams Jr KF et al (2007) Acute heart failure Syndromes: clinical scenarios and pathophysiologic targets for therapy. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cecconi M, Reynolds T, Al-Subaie N, Rhodes A (2007) Haemodynamic monitoring in acute heart failure. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chatti R, Ben Fradj N, Trabelsi W, Kechiche H, Tavares M, Mebazaa A (2007) Algorithm for therapeutic management of acute heart failure syndromes. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Masip J (2007) Non-invasive ventilation. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Iyengar S, Abraham WT (2007) Diuretics for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lee CYW, Burnett, Jr JC (2007) Natriuretic peptides and Therapeutic Application. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hollenberg S (2007) Vasodilators in acute heart failure. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Parissis J, Farmakis D, Nieminen M (2007) Classical inotropes and new cardiac enhancers. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mather PJ, Konstam MA (2007) Newer mechanical devices in the management of acute heart failure. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Braunshweig F (2007) Therapeutic and diagnostic role of electrical devices in acute heart failure. Heart Fail Rev (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Heart Failure Unit, Department of CardiologyAthens University Hospital AttikonAthensGreece
  2. 2.Clinical Investigation CenterINSERM-University Hospital, Cardiology, University Hospital, Nancy-UniversityNancyFrance

Personalised recommendations