Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 109–123 | Cite as

Pharmacological treatment of chronic heart failure

  • Rachele Adorisio
  • Leonardo De Luca
  • Joseph Rossi
  • Mihai Gheorghiade
Article

Abstract

Heart failure (HF) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy has improved dramatically during the last 20 years. Pharmacological treatment, as it stands today, is a combination of preventive and symptomatic strategies. The mainstay life-saving drugs are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers. Additional benefits are obtained when angiotensin-receptor blockers or aldosterone antagonists are added. Digitalis and/or diuretics are useful for symptom reduction. In addition, combination therapy with hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate is recommended in African Americans.

Keywords

Heart failure Drugs Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors β-blockers Diuretics Digitalis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachele Adorisio
    • 1
  • Leonardo De Luca
    • 2
  • Joseph Rossi
    • 3
  • Mihai Gheorghiade
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Cardiology and Cardiac SurgeryOspedale Bambino GesùRomeItaly
  2. 2.Division of CardiologyEuropean HospitalRomeItaly
  3. 3.Northwestern University, Feinberg School of MedicineChicago
  4. 4.Northwestern University, Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

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