Advertisement

Journal of the History of Biology

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 493–528 | Cite as

“A Great Complication of Circumstances” – Darwin and the Economy of Nature

  • Trevor PearceEmail author
Article

Abstract

In 1749, Linnaeus presided over the dissertation “Oeconomia Naturae,” which argued that each creature plays an important and particular role in nature’s economy. This phrase should be familiar to readers of Darwin, for he claims in the Origin that “all organic beings are striving, it may be said, to seize on each place in the economy of nature.” Many scholars have discussed the influence of political economy on Darwin’s ideas. In this paper, I take a different tack, showing that Darwin’s idea of an economy of nature stemmed from the views of earlier naturalists like Linnaeus and Lyell. I argue, in the first section of the paper, that Linnaeus’ idea of oeconomia naturae is derived from the idea of the animal economy, and that his idea of politia naturae is an extension of the idea of a politia civitatis. In the second part, I explore the use of the concept of stations in the work of De Candolle and Lyell – the precursor to Darwin’s concept of places. I show in the third part of the paper that the idea of places in an economy of nature is employed by Darwin at many key points in his thinking: his discussion of the Galapagos birds, his reading of Malthus, etc. Finally, in the last section, I demonstrate that the idea of a place in nature’s economy is essential to Darwin’s account of divergence. To tell his famous story of divergence and adaptation, Darwin needed the economy of nature.

Keywords

Charles Darwin Carl Linnaeus Augustin Pyrame de Candolle Charles Lyell John Hunter economy of nature polity of nature animal economy place niche divergence Galapagos Islands Mimus thenca 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research for this article was supported by a SSHRC Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship and a Pre-Doctoral Fellowship from the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. I am indebted to Robert Richards, Elise Berman, Paul Farber, and three anonymous referees for reading and commenting on draft versions of the paper. Helpful feedback was also provided by audiences at the 2006 Midwest Junto for the History of Science, CSHPS 2006, and the ‘Global Environment’ workshop at the University of Chicago.

References

  1. Acot, P. 1983. “Darwin et l’écologie.” Revue d’histoire des sciences 36: 33–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acot, P. 1988. Histoire de l’écologie. Paris:PUF.Google Scholar
  3. Acot, P. (ed.). 1998. The European Origins of Scientific Ecology (1800–1901), 2 Vols. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  4. Aristotle. 1984. “History of Animals”. Translated by D’Arcy Thompson. J. Barnes (ed.), The Complete Works of Aristotle, Vol. 1. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 774–993.Google Scholar
  5. Audouin, JV. 1824. “Entomologie.” Bory de Saint-Vincent, et al. (eds.), Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle, 6 vols. Paris:Rey et Gravier, pp. 178–191.Google Scholar
  6. Balan, B. 1975. “Premières recherches sur l’origine et la formation du concept d’économie animale.” Revue d’histoire des sciences 28: 289–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balan, B. 1979. L’ordre et le temps: L’anatomie comparée et l’histoire des vivants au XIX e siècle. Paris:J. Vrin.Google Scholar
  8. Barlow, N. 1935. “Charles Darwin and the Galapagos Islands.” Nature 136(September 7): 391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beddall, BG. 1988. “Darwin and Divergence: The Wallace Connection.” Journal of the History of Biology 21: 1–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benton, T. 1995. “Science, Ideology and Culture: Malthus and The Origin of Species.” D Amigoni, J Wallace (eds.), Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species. Manchester:Manchester University Press, pp. 68–94.Google Scholar
  11. Benton, T. 1998. “Darwin as a Reluctant Revolutionary: Against Reductionism in the History of Science.” Journal of Victorian Culture 3: 137–147.Google Scholar
  12. Berg, F. 1964. “Correspondence Between Nils Rosén von Rosenstein and Albrecht von Haller.” Acta Paediatrica 53: 103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boerhaave, H. 1741. ΦΥΣΙΟΛΟΓΙΚH, seu Oeconomia Animalis. London:J. Noon.Google Scholar
  14. Boerhaave, H. 1962–1979. G.A. Lindeboom (ed.), Boerhaave’s Correspondence, 3 Vols. Leiden: E.J. Brill.Google Scholar
  15. Bohlin, I. 1991. “Robert M. Young and Darwin Historiography.” Social Studies of Science 21: 597–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Booth, E. 2005. ‘A Subtle and Mysterious Machine’: The Medical World of Walter Charleton (1619–1707). Dordrecht:Springer.Google Scholar
  17. Boyle, R. 1686. A Free Enquiry into the Vulgarly Receiv’d Notion of Nature; Made in an Essay Address’d to a Friend. London:H. Clark.Google Scholar
  18. Bradley, Susan (ed.). 1991. Archives biographiques françaises: Fusion dans un ordre unique de 180 des plus importants ouvrages de référence biographiques français publiés du XVII e au XX e siècle (ABF I). Munich:K.G. Saur.Google Scholar
  19. Brown, T. 1968. The Mechanical Philosophy and the ‘Animal Oeconomy’: A Study in the Development of English Physiology in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Century. Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University.Google Scholar
  20. Browne, J. 1980. “Darwin’s Botanical Arithmetic and the ‘Principle of Divergence’, 1852–1858.” Journal of the History of Biology 13: 53–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Browe, J.. 1983. The Secular Ark: Studies in the History of Biogeogtraphy, New Haven, CT: yale University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Browne, J. 1995. Charles Darwin: Voyaging. Princeton:Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Chambaud, M. 1765. “Œconomic animale.” Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, Vol. 11. Paris: Briasson, pp. 360–366Google Scholar
  24. Charleton, W. 1659a. Oeconomia Animalis, Novis in Medicina Hypothesibus Superstructa, & Mechanicè Explicata. London:R. Danielis and J. Redmanni.Google Scholar
  25. Charleton, W. 1659b. Natural History of Nutrition, Life, and Voluntary Motion, Containing all the New Discoveries of Anatomist’s and Most Probable Opinions of Physicians, Concerning the Oeconomie of Human Nature: Methodically Delivered in Exercitations Physico-Anatomical. London:H. Herringman.Google Scholar
  26. Cox, DL. 1980. “A Note on the Queer History of ‘Niche’.” Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 61: 201–202.Google Scholar
  27. Cross, SJ. 1981. “John Hunter, the Animal Oeconomy, and Late Eighteenth-Century Physiological Discourse.” Studies in History of Biology 5: 1–110.Google Scholar
  28. Dajoz, R. 1984. “Eléments pour une histoire de l’écologie. La naissance de l’écologie moderne au XIXe siècle.” Histoire et Nature 24/25: 5–119.Google Scholar
  29. Darwin, C. (ed.). 1838–1843. The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Under the Command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., During the Years 1832 to 1836, 5 Vols. London: Smith, Elder, and Co.Google Scholar
  30. Darwin, C. 1839. Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by H.M.S. Beagle. London:H. Colburn.Google Scholar
  31. Darwin, C. 1845. Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Various Countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle, 2nd ed. London:J. Murray.Google Scholar
  32. Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London:J. Murray.Google Scholar
  33. Darwin, C. 1909. F. Darwin (ed.), The Foundations of the Origin of Species. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Darwin, C. 1933. N. Barlow (ed.), Charles Darwin’s Diary of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Darwin, C. 1963. “Darwin’s Ornithological Notes.” N. Barlow (ed.), Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Historical Series, Vol. 2, pp. 201–278.Google Scholar
  36. Darwin, C. 1975. R.C. Stauffer (ed.), Charles Darwin’s Natural Selection, Being the Second Part of his Big Species Book Written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Darwin, C. 1985. F. Burkhardt and S. Smith (eds.), The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, 15 Vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Darwin, C. 1987. P.H. Barrett, P.J. Gautrey, S. Herbert, D. Kohn and S. Smith (eds.), Charles Darwin’s Notebooks, 1836–1844: Geology, Transmutation of Species, Metaphysical Enquiries. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Darwin, C. 2000. R. Keynes (ed.), Charles Darwin’s Zoology Notes & Specimen Lists from H.M.S. Beagle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Darwin, C, Wallace, A. 1858. “On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection.” Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 3: 45–62.Google Scholar
  41. de Candolle, AP. 1820. “Géographie botanique.” FG Cuvier (ed.), Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, 18 vols. Paris:Levrault, pp. 359–436.Google Scholar
  42. de Candolle, A.L.P.P. 1855. Géographie botanique raisonnée, ou Exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle, 2 Vols. Paris: V. Masson.Google Scholar
  43. de Folter, RJ. 1978. “A Newly Discovered Oeconomia Animalis, by Pieter Muis of Rotterdam (1645–1721).” Janus 65: 183–204.Google Scholar
  44. Delamare, N. 1722. Traité de la police, où l’on trouvera l’histoire de son etablissement, les fonctions et les prerogatives de ses magistrats, toutes les lois et tous les reglemens qui la concernent, 2nd ed. Paris: M. Brunet.Google Scholar
  45. Deléage, J-P. 1992. Histoire de l’écologie: Une science de l’homme et de la nature. Paris:La Découverte.Google Scholar
  46. Desmond, A, Moore, J. 1991. Darwin. New York:Warner.Google Scholar
  47. Digby, K. 1644. Two Treatises, in the One of Which, the Nature of Bodies, in the Other, the Nature of Mans Soule is Looked into: In Way of Discovery, of the Immortality of Reasonable Souls. Paris:G. Blaizot.Google Scholar
  48. Drude, O. 1906. “The Position of Ecology in Modern Science.” H Rogers (ed.), Congress of Arts and Sciences. Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, 5 vols. Boston:Houghton, Mifflin, and Co, pp. 177–190.Google Scholar
  49. Egerton, FN. 1968. “Studies of Animal Populations from Lamarck to Darwin.” Journal of the History of Biology 1: 225–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Egerton, F.N. 2007. “A History of the Ecological Sciences, Part 23: Linnaeus and the Economy of Nature.” Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 88: 72–88. Online: http://www.esajournals.org.
  51. Febvre, L. 1930. “Civilisation: évolution d’un mot et d’un groupe d’idées.” Pour une Histoire à part entière. Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N, pp. 481–528.Google Scholar
  52. Fleming, J. 1822. Philosophy of Zoology: or a General view of the Structure, Functions, and Classification of Animals, 2 Vols. Edinburgh: A ConstableGoogle Scholar
  53. Foucault, M. 1979. “La politique de la santé au XVIIIe siècle.” Dit et écrits, Vol. 3. Paris: Gallimard, pp. 725–742, 1994.Google Scholar
  54. Foucault, M. 1981. “Omnes et singulatim: vers une critique de la raison politique.” Dit et écrits, Vol. 4. Paris: Gallimard, pp. 134–161, 1994.Google Scholar
  55. Foucault, M. 2004. Sécurité, territoire, population: Cours au Collège de France (1977–1978). Paris:Gallimard.Google Scholar
  56. Freeman, R.B. 1977. The Works and Charles Darwin; An Annotaled Bibliographical Handlist, 2nd ed. Hamden, CT: ArchonGoogle Scholar
  57. Glick, TF. 1978. “Giuliano Pancaldi, Charles Darwin: ‘storia’ ed ‘economia’ della natura.” Isis 69: 629–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Goldstein, J. 1987. Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Gordon, S. 1989. “Darwin and Political Economy: The Connection Reconsidered.” Journal of the History of Biology 22: 437–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gould, SJ. 1977. Ever Since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History. New York:W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  61. Greene, JC. 1981. Science, Ideology, and World View: Essays in the History of Evolutionary Ideas. Berkeley:University of California Press.Google Scholar
  62. Griesemer, JR. 1992. “Niche: Historical Perspectives.” EF Keller, EA Lloyd (eds.), Keywords in Evolutionary Biology. Cambridge:Harvard University Press, pp. 231–240.Google Scholar
  63. Grinnell, J. 1919. “The English Sparrow has Arrived in Death Valley: An Experiment in Nature.” American Naturalist 53: 468–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Grinnell, J. 1922. “The Trend of Avian Populations in California.” Science 56: 671–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Grinnell, J. 1924. “Geography and Evolution.” Ecology 5: 225–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Haeckel, E. 1866. Generelle Morphologie der Organismen: allgemeine Grundzüge der organischen Formen-Wissenschaft, mechanisch begründet durch die von Charles Darwin reformirte Descendenz-Theorie, 2 Vols. Berlin: G. Reimer.Google Scholar
  67. Hestmark, G. 2000. “Oeconomia Naturae L.” Nature 405(May 4): 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hull, DL. 2005. “Deconstructing Darwin: Evolutionary Theory in Context.” Journal of the History of Biology 38: 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hunter, J. 1837. Richard Owen (ed.), The Works of John Hunter, Vol. 4, Observations on Certain Parts of the Animal Oeconomy. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  70. Koerner, L. 1999. Linnaeus: Nature and Nation. Cambridge:Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Kohn, D. 1985. “Darwin’s Principle of Divergence as Internal Dialogue.” D Kohn (ed.), The Darwinian Heritage. Princeton:Princeton University Press, pp. 245–257.Google Scholar
  72. Kohn, D. 1996. “The Aesthetic Construction of Darwin’s Theory.” AI Tauber (ed.), The Elusive Synthesis: Aesthetics and Science. Dordrecht:Kluwer, pp. 13–48.Google Scholar
  73. Kohn, D. 2008. “Darwin’s Keystone: The Principle of Divergence.” M Ruse, RJ Richards (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the “Origin of Species”. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, pp. 87–108.Google Scholar
  74. La Vergata, A. 1988. “Theodicy and Nature’s Economy.” Nuncius 3: 139–152.Google Scholar
  75. Limoges, C. 1968. “Darwin, Milne-Edwards et le principe de divergence.” Actes du XII e Congrès international d’histoire des sciences. Vol. 8, Histoire des sciences naturelles et de la biologie. Paris: A. Blanchard, pp. 111–116, 1971.Google Scholar
  76. Limoges, C. 1970. La sélection naturelle: étude sur la première constitution d’un concept (1837–1859). Paris:Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  77. Limoges, C. 1972. “Introduction.” C Linné (ed.), L’équilibre de la nature. Paris:J. Vrin, pp. 7–22.Google Scholar
  78. Limoges, C. 1994. “Milne-Edwards, Darwin, Durkheim and the Division of Labour: A Case Study in Reciprocal Conceptual Exchanges Between the Social and the Natural Sciences.” IB Cohen (ed.), The Natural and the Social Sciences: Some Critical and Historical Perspectives. Dordrecht:Kluwer, pp. 317–343.Google Scholar
  79. Linnaeus, C. 1749. “Oeconomia Naturae [defended by I. Biberg].” Amoenitates Academicae, seu Dissertationes Variae Physicae, Medicae, Botanicae, Vol. 2. Holmiae: Laurentium Salvium, pp. 1–58, 1751. Translated by Benjamin Stillingfleet as “The Oeconomy of Nature,” in Miscellaneous Tracts relating to Natural History, Husbandry, and Physick. London: R. and J. Dodsley, pp. 31–108, 1759.Google Scholar
  80. Linnaeus, C. 1754. “Stationes Plantarum [defended by A. Hedenberg].” Amoenitates Academicae, seu Dissertationes Variae Physicae, Medicae, Botanicae, Vol. 4. Holmiae: Laurentium Salvium, pp. 64–87, 1759.Google Scholar
  81. Linnaeus, C. 1760. “Politia Naturae [defended by C.D. Wilcke].” Amoenitates Academicae, seu Dissertationes Variae Physicae, Medicae, Botanicae, Vol. 6. Lugduni Batavorum: Wetstenium, pp. 17–39, 1764. Translated by F.J. Brand as “On the Police of Nature,” in Select Dissertations from the Amoenitates Academicae, a Supplement to Mr. Stillingfleet’s Tracts Relating to Natural History. London: G. Robinson, pp. 129–166, 1781.Google Scholar
  82. Linnaeus, C. 1805. “Linnaeus’s Diary.” Translated by C. Troilius. R. Pulteney, A General View of the Writings of Linnaeus, 2nd ed. London: R. Taylor, pp. 511–578.Google Scholar
  83. Lyell, C. 1830. Principles of Geology, Being an Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth’s Surface, by Reference to Causes now in Operation, 1 vols. London:J. Murray.Google Scholar
  84. Lyell, C. 1832. Principles of Geology, Being an Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth’s Surface, by Reference to Causes now in Operation, 2 vols. London:J. Murray.Google Scholar
  85. Matagne, P. 1999. Aux origins de l’écologie: Les naturalistes en France de 1800 à 1914. Paris:CTHS.Google Scholar
  86. Mayr, E. 1992. “Darwin’s Principle of Divergence.” Journal of the History of Biology 25: 343–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Millar, J. 1771. Observations Concerning the Distinction of Ranks in Society. London:J. Muray.Google Scholar
  88. Milne-Edwards, H. 1827. “Organisation.” Bory de Saint-Vincent, et al. (eds.), Dictionnaire classique d’histoire naturelle, 12 vols. Paris:Rey et Gravier, pp. 332–344.Google Scholar
  89. Milne-Edwards, H. 1834. Histoire naturelle des crustacés, comprenant l’anatomie, la physiologie et la classification de ces animaux, 1 vols. Paris:Roret.Google Scholar
  90. 1851. Introduction à la zoologie générale, ou Considérations sur les tendances del la nature dans la constitution du règne animale. Paris: V. MassonGoogle Scholar
  91. Moore, J, Desmond, A. 1998. “Transgressing Boundaries.” Journal of Victorian Culture 3: 147–168.Google Scholar
  92. Müller-Wille, S. 2003. “Nature as a Marketplace: The Political Economy of Linnaean Botany.” History of Political Economy 35(Supplement): 154–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nicolson, M. 1987. “Alexander von Humboldt, Humboldtian Science and the Origins of the Study of Vegetation.” History of Science 25: 167–194.Google Scholar
  94. Ospovat, D. 1981. The Development of Darwin’s Theory: Natural History, Natural Theology, and Natural Selection, 1838–1859. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Pancaldi, G. 1977. Charles Darwin: ‘storia’ ed ‘economia’ della natura. Florence:La nuova Italia.Google Scholar
  96. Parshall, KH. 1982. “Varieties as Incipient Species: Darwin’s Numerical Analysis.” Journal of the History of Biology 15: 191–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Paul, DB, Beatty, J. 2007. “Discarding Dichotomies, Creating Community: Sam Schweber and Darwin Studies.” K Gavroglu, J Renn (eds.), Positioning the History of Science. Dordrecht:Springer, pp. 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rausing, L. 2003. “Underwriting the Oeconomy: Linnaeus on Nature and Mind.” History of Political Economy 35(Supplement): 173–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ray, J. 1691. The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation. London:Samuel Smith.Google Scholar
  100. Rehbock, P. 1985. “John Fleming (1785–1857) and the Economy of Nature.” AC Wheeler, JH Price (eds.), From Linnaeus to Darwin: Commentaries on the History of Biology and Geology. London:Society for the History of Natural History.Google Scholar
  101. Rosén, N. 1964. “Rosén’s Letters to Haller.” Acta Paediatrica 53: 109–139.Google Scholar
  102. Schabas, M. 1990. “Ricardo Naturalized: Lyell and Darwin on the Economy of Nature.” DE Moggridge (ed.), Perspectives on the History of Economic Thought, 3 vols. Brookfield, VT:Gower, pp. 40–49.Google Scholar
  103. Schabas, M. 2005. The Natural Origins of Economics. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  104. Schweber, SS. 1977. “The Origin of the Origin Revisited.” Journal of the History of Biology 10: 229–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schweber, SS. 1980. “Darwin and the Political Economists: Divergence of Character.” Journal of the History of Biology 13: 195–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schweber, SS. 1983. “Facteur idéologiques et intellectuals dans la genèse de la théorie de la selection naturelle.” Y Conry (ed.), De Darwin au Darwinisme: Science et idéologie. Paris:J. Vrin, pp. 123–142.Google Scholar
  107. Schweber, SS. 1985. “The Wider British Context in Darwin’s Theorizing.” D Kohn (ed.), The Darwinian Heritage. Princeton:Princeton University Press, pp. 35–69.Google Scholar
  108. Schweber, SS. 1994. “Darwin and the Agronomists: An Influence of Political Economy on Scientific Thought.” IB Cohen (ed.), The Natural and the Social Sciences: Some Critical and Historical Perspectives. Dordrecht:Kluwer, pp. 305–316.Google Scholar
  109. Smit, P. 1978. “The Zoological Dissertations of Linnaeus.” G. Broberg (ed.), Linnaeus: Progress and Prospects in Linnaean Research. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell, pp. 118–136, 1980.Google Scholar
  110. Stauffer, RC. 1957. “Haeckel, Darwin, and Ecology.” Quarterly Review of Biology 32: 138–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stauffer, RC. 1960. “Ecology in the Long Manuscript Version of Darwin’s Origin of Species and Linnaeus” Oeconomy of Nature.’ Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 104: 235–241.Google Scholar
  112. Sulloway, F. 1982a. “Darwin and his Finches: The Evolution of a Legend.” Journal of the History of Biology 15: 1–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sulloway, F. 1982b. “Darwin’s Conversion: The Beagle Voyage and its Aftermath.” Journal of the History of Biology 15: 325–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tammone, W. 1995. “Competition, the Division of Labor, and Darwin’s Principle of Divergence.” Journal of the History of Biology 28: 109–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Thomas, T. 1606. Dictionarium summa fide ac diligentia accuratissime emendatum, magnaque insuper rerum scitu dignarum, et vocabulorum accessione, longè auctius locupletiusque redditum, 2nd ed. London:S. Waterson.Google Scholar
  116. von Humboldt, A. and Bonpland, A. 1805. Essai sur la géographie des plantes; accompagné d’un tableau physique des régions équinoxiales. Paris: Levrault. Online: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k977938.
  117. Winch, D. 2001. “Darwin Fallen Among Political Economists.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 145: 415–437.Google Scholar
  118. Worster, D. 1985. Nature’s Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas, 2nd ed. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Young, RM. 1985. Darwin’s Metaphor: Nature’s Place in Victorian Culture. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Conceptual and Historical Studies of ScienceUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations