Journal of the History of Biology

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 73–117 | Cite as

Identification Keys, the “Natural Method,” and the Development of Plant Identification Manuals

Article

Abstract

The origins of field guides and other plant identification manuals have been poorly understood until now because little attention has been paid to 18th century botanical identification guides. Identification manuals came to have the format we continue to use today when botanical instructors in post-Revolutionary France combined identification keys (step-wise analyses focusing on distinctions between plants) with the “natural method” (clustering of similar plants, allowing for identification by gestalt) and alphabetical indexes. Botanical works featuring multiple but linked techniques to enable plant identification became very popular in France by the first decade of the 19th century. British botanists, however, continued to use Linnaeus’s sexual system almost exclusively for another two decades. Their reluctance to use other methods or systems of classification can be attributed to a culture suspicious of innovation, anti-French sentiment and the association of all things Linnaean with English national pride, fostered in particular by the President of the Linnean Society of London, Sir James Edward Smith. The British aversion to using multiple plant identification technologies in one text also helps explain why it took so long for English botanists to adopt the natural method, even after several Englishmen had tried to introduce it to their country. Historians of ornithology emphasize that the popularity of ornithological guides in the 19th and 20th centuries stems from their illustrations, illustrations made possible by printing technologies that improved illustration quality and reduced costs. Though illustrations are the most obvious features of late 19th century and 20th century guides, the organizational principles that make them functional as identification devices come from techniques developed in botanical works in the 18th century.

Keywords

field guide history of botany Lamarck Candolle natural method keys 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research for this article was supported by a SSHRC Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship for Sara Scharf (2003–2006) and a Library and Archives Visiting Fellowship at King’s College London (2007). Mary P. “Polly” Winsor, Charissa Varma, Nadia Talent, three anonymous reviewers, and, especially, Staffan Müller-Wille and Renzo Baldasso provided helpful feedback on draft versions.

References

  1. Adanson Michel. 1966. Familles des Plantes. Lehre: J. CramerGoogle Scholar
  2. Aeschimann, David, Lauber, Konrad, Moses, Daniel, Martin and Theurillat, Jean-Paul. 2004. Flora Alpina, 3 vols, Vol. 1. Bern: Haupt VerlagGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen David Elliston. 1976. The Naturalist in Britain: A Social History. London: Allen LaneGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen David. E. 1996. The Struggle for Specialist Journals: Natural History in the British Periodicals Market in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Archives of natural history 23(1): 107–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, David Elliston. 2001. “Natural History in Britain in the Eighteenth Century.” In Naturalists and Society: The Culture of Natural History. Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum, pp. 333–347Google Scholar
  6. Allford, J.M. 1999. “List of the Published Works of John Lindley.” Stearn, William T. (ed.), John Lindley, 1799–1865: Gardener-Botanist and Pioneer Orchidologist. Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Antique Collectors’ Club in association with the Royal Horticultural Society, pp. 197–218Google Scholar
  7. Allmon Warren. D. 2007. The Evolution of Accuracy in Natural History Illustration: Reversal of Printed Illustrations of Snails and Crabs in Pre-Linnaean Works Suggests Indifference to Morphological Detail. Archives of Natural History 34(1): 174–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. de Almeida, Hermione. 1991. Romantic Medicine and John Keats. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  9. Arber Agnes. Robertson. 1938. Herbals: Their Origin and Evolution, A Chapter in the History Of Botany (1470–1670). 2 ed. Cambridge: University PressGoogle Scholar
  10. Atran Scott. 1990. Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Toward an Anthropology of Science. New York: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrow Mark Velpeau. Jr. 1998. A Passion for Birds: American Ornithology After Audubon. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University PressGoogle Scholar
  12. Bentham, George. 1865. Handbook of the British flora; A Description of the Flowering Plants and Ferns Indigenous To, or Naturalized In, the British Isles. For the Use of Beginners and Amateurs … with Illustrations from Original Drawings by W. Fitch, 2nd ed., 2 vols, Vol. 1. London: Lovell Reeve & CoGoogle Scholar
  13. Bentham, George. 1997. George Bentham: Autobiography, 1800–1834. Marion Filipiuk (ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto PressGoogle Scholar
  14. Bergeret, [Jean-Pierre]. 1783–1784. Phytonomatotechnie universelle. Paris: l’auteur, Didot, et PoissonGoogle Scholar
  15. Berkenhout John. 1770. Outlines of the Natural history of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 2. London: P. ElmslyGoogle Scholar
  16. Berkenhout, John. 1795. Synopsis of the Natural history of Great-Britain and Ireland ... Being a Third Edition of the Outlines, &c. Corrected and Considerably Enlarged. Comprehending the Vegetable Kingdom, Vol. 2. London: T. CadellGoogle Scholar
  17. Bewick, Thomas. 1797. History of British Birds, the Figures Engraved on Wood by T.␣Bewick, 2 vols. Newcastle: Sol Hodgson for Beiley & BewickGoogle Scholar
  18. Biedleman, Linda H. and Kozloff, Eugene N. 2003. Plants of the San Francisco Bay region, Revised ed. Berkeley: University of California PressGoogle Scholar
  19. Blunt Wilfrid. 1971. The Compleat Naturalist: A Life of Linnaeus. New York: VikingGoogle Scholar
  20. Boerhaave, Herman. 1719. A Method of Studying Physick. Translated by Samber. London: H. P. for C. Rivington … B. Creake … and J. SackfieldGoogle Scholar
  21. Bornbusch Alan H. 1989. Lacépède and Cuvier: A Comparative Case Study of Goals and Methods in Late Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Fish Classification. Journal of the History of Biology 22(1): 141–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown Paul Martin, Folsom Stan. 2006. Wild Orchids of the Canadian Maritimes and Northern Great Lakes Region. Gainesville: University Press of FloridaGoogle Scholar
  23. Bruce-Grey Plant Committee, Owen Sound Field Naturalists. 1997. A Guide to the Orchids of Bruce and Grey Counties, Ontario. Owen Sound: Stan Brown Printers LimitedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bucquet. 1773. Introduction à l’étude des corps naturels, tirés du règne végétal, 2 vols. Paris: la Veuve HerissantGoogle Scholar
  25. Buffon, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de. 1749. Histoire naturelle générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roy, 15 vols, Vol. 2. Paris: Impremerie RoyaleGoogle Scholar
  26. Candolle, A[ugustin]-P[yramus] de. 1813. Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l’art de décrire et d’étudier les végétaux. Paris: DétervilleGoogle Scholar
  27. Candolle, Augustin-Pyramus de. 2003. Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle: mémoires et souvenirs (1778–1841). Edited by Candaux, Jean-Daniel and Drouin, Jean-Marc: GeorgGoogle Scholar
  28. Cantor, Geoffrey, Dawson, Gowan, Gooday, Graeme, Noakes, Richard, Shuttleworth, Sally and Topham, Jonathan R. 2004. Science in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical: Reading the Magazine of Nature. Cambridge Studies in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture (No. 45). Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  29. Carteret, Xavier. 2008. “Michel Adanson (1727–1806) et la méthode naturelle de classification.” Ph D thesis. Paris: école des Hautes études en Sciences SocialesGoogle Scholar
  30. Chapman William K. 1997. Orchids of the Northeast. A Field Guide. Syracuse: Syracuse University PressGoogle Scholar
  31. Christofides, Yiannis. 2001. The Orchids of Cyprus. A Guide to the Cyprus Orchids. Platres, Cyprus: n.pGoogle Scholar
  32. Clark J.F.M. 2006. History from the Ground Up: Bugs, Political Economy, and God in Kirby and Spence’s Introduction to Entomology (1815–1856). Isis 97: 28–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Comber J.B. 2001. Orchids of Sumatra. Richmond, Surrey: Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  34. Cooper Alix. 2007. Inventing the Indigenous: Local Knowledge and Natural History in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  35. Coues Elliott. 1872. Key to North American Birds, Containing a Concise Accounte of Every Species of Living and Fossil Bird at Present Known from the Continent North of the Mexican and United States Boundary. Illustrated by 6 Steel Plates, and Upwards of 250 Woodcuts. Salem: Naturalists’ AgencyGoogle Scholar
  36. Cowrie, I.D., Short, P.S. and Osterkamp Madsen, M. 2000. Floodplain Flora: A Flora of the Coastal Floodplains of the Northern Territory, Australia. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series Number 10. Canberra: Australia Biological Resources StudyGoogle Scholar
  37. Cribb, Phillip and Whister, W. Arthur. 1996. Orchids of Samoa. n.p.: Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  38. Davy de Virville Adrien. 1954. Histoire de la botanique en France. Nice: Comité Français du VIII Congrès International de BotaniqueGoogle Scholar
  39. Daudin, Henri. [1926]. De Linné à Jussieu. Méthodes de la classification et idée de série en botanique et en zoologie (1740–1790). Paris: Libraire Félix AlcanGoogle Scholar
  40. Dayrat Benoît. 2003. Les botanistes et la flore de France: trois siècles de découvertes. Paris: Muséum National d’Histoire NaturelleGoogle Scholar
  41. Desmond Ray. 2003. Great Natural History Books and Their Creators. London: British LibraryGoogle Scholar
  42. Dickinson Timothy, Metsger Deborah, Bull Jenny, Dickinson Richard 2004. The ROM Field Guide to Wildflowers of Ontario. Toronto: Royal Ontario MuseumGoogle Scholar
  43. Drayton Richard Harry. 2000. Nature’s Goverment: Science, Imperial Britain, and the ‹Improvement’ of the World. New Haven: Yale University PressGoogle Scholar
  44. du Petit-Thouars, Aubert. 1811a. “Dissertation sur l’enchaînement des êtres, lue en la séance publique du Collége des Philalèthes de Lille, du 19 mai 1788.” In Mélanges de botanique et de voyages. Paris: Arthus Bertrand, pp. 1–48Google Scholar
  45. du Petit-Thouars, Aubert. 1811b. “Observations sur les plantes des isles australes de l’Afrique.” In Mélanges de botanique et de voyages. Paris: Arthus BertrandGoogle Scholar
  46. Dubois, [François-Noël-Alexandre]. 1803. Méthode éprouvée, avec laquelle on peut parvenir facilement, et sans maître, à connoître les Plantes de l’intérieur de la France, et en particulier celle des environs d’Orléans. Ouvrage infiniment utile aux personnes qui passent une partie de l’année à la campagne, et aux jeunes gens auxquels on veut inspirer du goût pour l’Histoire naturelle. Orléans: Darnault-MaurantGoogle Scholar
  47. Dunlap, Tom. Tom Dunlap on Early Bird Guides January 2005 [cited June 21 2007]. Available from http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/eh/10.1/gallery.html
  48. Dunne Pete. 2003. Pete Dunne on Bird Watching: The How-To, Where-To, and when-to. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Field GuidesGoogle Scholar
  49. Duris, Pascal. 1997. “Lamarck et la botanique linnéenne.” Goulven Laurent (ed.), Jean-Baptiste Lamarck 1744–1829. Paris: CTHS (Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques), pp. 253–266Google Scholar
  50. Ewan Joseph, Ewan Nesta. 1963. John Lyon, Nurseryman and Plant Hunter, and his Journal, 1799–1814. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, n.s. 53(2): 1–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fleming John. 1822. The Philosophy of Zoology; or a General View of the Structure, Functions, and Classification of Animals. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable & CoGoogle Scholar
  52. Ford Brian J. 2003. Scientific Illustration in the Eighteenth Century. In Porter R. (ed) Eighteenth-Century Science. 561–583. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  53. Freedberg David. 2002. The Eye of the Lynx: Galileo, His Friends, and the Beginnings of Modern Natural History. Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  54. Gentry Alwyn H., Vasquez Rodolfo. 1996. A Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) with Supplementary Notes on Herbaceous Taxa. Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  55. Gilibert, Jean Emmanuel and de la Tourette, Louis Claret de Fleurieu. 1797. Démonstrations élémentaires de botanique, contenant les Principes généraux de cette Science, l’explication des termes, les fondamens des Méthodes, & les élémens de la physique des végétaux. La description des Plantes les plus communes, les plus curieuses, les plus utiles, rangées suivant la Méthode de M. DE TOURNEFORT & celle du Chevalier LINNé. Leurs usages & leurs propriétés dans les Arts, l’économie rurale, dans la Médecine humaine & Vétérinaire; ainsi qu’une instruction sur la formation d’un Herbier, sur la dessication, la macération, l’infusion des plantes, &c. Torisieme édition, corrigé & considéralement augmentée, 3 ed., 3 vols. Lyon: Bruyset FrèresGoogle Scholar
  56. Givens Jean A. 2006. Reading and Writing the Illustrated Tractatus de herbis, 1280–1526. In Givens J.A., Reeds K.M., Touwaide A. (eds) Visualizing Medieval Medicine and Natural History, 1200–1500. 115–145. Burlington, Vermont: AshgateGoogle Scholar
  57. Gray, Samuel Frederick. 1821a. A Natural Arrangement of British plants, according to their relations to each other, as pointed out by Jussieu, de Candolle, Brown, &c. including those cultivated for use; with an introduction to Botany, in which the terms newly introduced are explained; illustrated by figures, 2 vols. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and JoyGoogle Scholar
  58. Gray, Samuel Frederick. 1821. A Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia. 2nd ed. London: Thomas and George UnderwoodGoogle Scholar
  59. Griffiths Antony 2004. Prints for Books: Book Illustration in France, 1760–1800. London: British LibraryGoogle Scholar
  60. Guillemin. 1825. “Notice necrologique sur F.N.A. Dubois, chanoine de l’eglise d’Orleans.” Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles 5(5): 100–101Google Scholar
  61. Hawthorne William, Jongkind Carl. 2006. Woody Plants of Western African Forests. A Guide to the Forest Trees, Shrubs and Lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Richmond, Surrey: Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  62. te Heesen Anke. 2005. Accounting for the Natural World: Double-Entry Bookkeeping in the Field. In Schiebinger L., Swann C. (eds), Colonial Botany: Science, Commerce, and Politics in the Early Modern World. 237–251. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania PressGoogle Scholar
  63. Henrey, Blanche. 1975. British Botanical and Horticultural Literature Before 1800: Comprising a History and Bibliography of Botanical and Horticultural Books Printed in England, Scotland, and Ireland from the Earliest Times Until 1800, 3 vols, Vol. 1. London: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  64. Heywood V.H. 1985. Linnaeus – the Conflict Between Science and Scholasticism. In Weinstock J. (eds) Contemporary Perspectives on Linnaeus. 1–15. Lanham: University Press of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  65. Hill, John. 1770. The Vegetable System, 2nd ed., Vol. 1. LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. Jussieu Antoine-Laurent de. 1789. Genera plantarum secundum ordines naturales disposita. Paris: Herissant & Theophilum BarroisGoogle Scholar
  67. Knight, David M. 1981. Ordering the World. London: Burnett BooksGoogle Scholar
  68. Koerner Lisbet. 1995. Women and Utility in Enlightenment Science. Configurations 3(2): 233–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Koerner Lisbet. 1999. Linnaeus: Nature and Nation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  70. Kusukawa Sachiko. 2000. Illustrating Nature. In Frasca-Spada M., Jardine N. (eds) Books and the Sciences in History. 90–113. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  71. Kusukawa, Sachiko. 2000b. “The Historia Piscium (1686).” Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 54(2): 179–197Google Scholar
  72. Lahring Heinjo. 2003. Water and Wetland Plants of the Prairie Provinces. Regina: Canadian Plains Research Center, University of ReginaGoogle Scholar
  73. Lamarck, [Jean-Baptiste Pierre de Monet de]. 1779. Flore françoise [sic] ou description succincte de toutes les plantes qui croissent naturellement en France, disposées selon une nouvelle méthode d’analyse, & à laquelle on a joint la citation de leurs vertus les moins équivoques en médecine, & de leur utilité dans les arts, Vol. 1. Paris: Impremerie RoyaleGoogle Scholar
  74. Larson James L. 1967. Linnæus and the Natural Method. Isis 58(3): 304–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Larson James L. 1971. Reason and Experience: The Representation of Natural Order in the Work of Carl von Linné. Berkeley: University of California PressGoogle Scholar
  76. Leclair Edmond. 1908. Les Lestiboudois (Jean-Baptiste, François-Joseph, Thémistocle): botanistes Lillois. Bulletin de la Société d’Etudes de la Province de Cambrai 12: 39–91Google Scholar
  77. Lestiboudois François-Joseph. 1781. Botanographie Belgique, ou méthode pour connoître facilement toutes les Plantes qui croissent naturellement, ou que l’on cultive communément dans les Provinces septentrionales de la France. Lille: J. B. HenryGoogle Scholar
  78. Lestiboudois, François-Joseph. 1799. Botanographie Belgique, 2nd ed., 3 in 4 vols, Vol. 1. Lille: VanackereGoogle Scholar
  79. Lewis Rhodri. 2007. Language, Mind and Nature: Artificial Languages in England from Bacon to Locke. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  80. Lindley, John. 1829. An Introductory Lecture Delivered in the University of London on Thursday, April 30, 1829. London: John TaylorGoogle Scholar
  81. Lindley John. 1846. The Vegetable Kingdom, or, the Structure, Classification, and Uses of Plants, Illustrated Upon the Natural System. With Upwards of Five Hundred Illustrations. London: For the author, by Bradbury & EvansGoogle Scholar
  82. Lindley, John and Smith, James Edward, Sir. 1825. A Letter to the Editors of the Philosophical Magazine and Journal; upon the correspondence between Sir James Edward Smith and Mr. Lindley, which has lately appeared in that journal. London: James Ridgway and SonsGoogle Scholar
  83. Linnaeus. 1735. Systema naturae. Lugduni Batavorum: Theodorum HaakGoogle Scholar
  84. Linnaeus. 1737. Critica Botanica. Leiden: Conrad Wishoff & filGoogle Scholar
  85. Linnaeus Carolus. 1738. Classes Plantarum. Lugduni Batavorum: Conradum WishoffGoogle Scholar
  86. Linnaeus Carolus. 1751. Philosophia Botanica. Stockholmiae: Godofr. KiesewetterGoogle Scholar
  87. Linnaeus Carolus. 1754. Genera Plantarum. 5th ed. Holmiae: Laurentii SalviiGoogle Scholar
  88. Linnaeus, Carolus. 2003. Philosophia Botanica. Translated by Freer, Stephen. Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  89. Linnaeus, [Carolus von]. 1764. Genera Plantarum, 6th ed. Holmiae: Laurentii SalviiGoogle Scholar
  90. Linnaeus, [Carolus von]. 1787. The families of plants, with their natural characters, acording to the number, figure, situation, and proportion of all the parts of fructification. Translated from the last edition (as published by Dr. Reichard) of the Genera Plantarum, and of the Mantissae Plantarum, of the elder Linnaeus; and from the Supplementum Plantarum of the younger Linnaeus, with all the new families of plants, from Thunberg and L’Heritier … Vol. 1. Lichfield: “A Botanical Society.”Google Scholar
  91. López González Ginés A. 2002. Guía de los árboles y arbustos de la Península Ibérica y Baleares. Madrid: Ediciones Mundi-PrensaGoogle Scholar
  92. Maat Jaap. 2004. Philosophical Languages in the Seventeenth Century: Dalgarno, Wilkins, Leibniz. Dordrecht: KluwerGoogle Scholar
  93. Mabberley D.J. 1985. Jupiter Botanicus: Robert Brown of the British Museum. Braunschweig: Verlag von J. CramerGoogle Scholar
  94. MacKay, James Townsend. 1836. Flora Hibernica, Comprising the Flowering Plants, Ferns, Characeae, Musci, Hepaticae, Lichenes, and Algae of Ireland, Arranged According to the Natural System, with a Synopsis of the Genera According to the Linnaean system. Dublin: William Curray Jun. and co.; London: Simpkin Marshall and Co.; Edinburgh: Fraser and CoGoogle Scholar
  95. MacLeay, W[illiam] S[harpe]. 1821. Horae Entomologicae: or Essays on the Annulose Animals, Vol. 1. London: S. BagsterGoogle Scholar
  96. Magnin-Gonze Joëlle. 2004. Histoire de la botanique. Lausanne: Delachaux et NiestléGoogle Scholar
  97. McMahon, Susan. 2002. “Classification: Sorting Out Early Modern England (draft).”Google Scholar
  98. McMahon Susan. 2005. Boundary Work: ‹National Quarrels and Party Factions’ in Eighteenth-Century British Botany. In Knight D.M., Eddy M.D. (eds) Science and Beliefs: From Natural Philosophy to Natural Science, 1700–1900. 43–61. Aldershot: AshgateGoogle Scholar
  99. McOuat Gordon R. 2001. Cataloguing Power: Delineating ‹Competent Naturalists’ and the Meaning of Species in the British Museum. British Journal for the History of Science 34(120): 1–28Google Scholar
  100. McOuat, Gordon R. 2001b. “From Cutting Nature at its Joints to Measuring It: New Kinds and New Kinds of People in Biology.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32(4): 613–645Google Scholar
  101. Milne Colin. 1770. A Botanical Dictionary: or Elements of Systematic and Philosophical Botany. London: William GriffinGoogle Scholar
  102. Milne, Colin. 1771. Institutes of botany; containing accurate, compleat and easy descriptions of all the known genera of plants: translated from the Latin of the celebrated Charles von Linné, ... To which are prefixed, I. A view of the ancient and present state of botany. II.␣A synopsis, exhibiting the essential or striking characters which serve to discriminate genera. London: W. GriffinGoogle Scholar
  103. Müller-Wille Staffan. 2007. Collection and Collation: Theory and Practice of Linnaean Botany. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38(3): 541–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Müller-Wille, Staffan. 2007b. “Introduction.” In Carl Linnaeus. Musa Cliffortiana: Clifford’s Banana Plant. With an Introduction by S. Müller-Wille. Translated by S. Freer. Vienna: International Association for Plant TaxonomyGoogle Scholar
  105. Müller-Wille Staffan, Reeds Karen 2007. A Translation of Carl Linnaeus’s Introduction to Genera plantarum (1737). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38(3): 563–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Múnera-Roldán Claudia, Córdoba-Córdoba Sergio 2007. El arte de ilustrar Aves, una breve reseña de la historia del arte en la ornitología. Boletín SAO 17(1): 1–9Google Scholar
  107. Nuttall, Thomas. 1818. The Genera of North American Plants, and a Catalogue of the Species to the Year 1817, 2 vols. Philadelphia: for the authorGoogle Scholar
  108. Nuttall Thomas. 1827. An Introduction to Systematic and Physiological Botany. Cambridge, MA: Hilliard and BrownGoogle Scholar
  109. Nuttall Thomas. 1830. An Introduction to Systematic and Physiological Botany. 2 ed. Cambridge, MA: Hilliard and BrownGoogle Scholar
  110. Nuttall, Thomas. 1832–1834. A Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and Canada, 2 vols. Hilliard and BrownGoogle Scholar
  111. Ogilvie Brian W. 2006. The Science of Describing: Natural History in Renaissance Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  112. Parrish, Susan Scott 2006. American Curiosity: Cultures of Natural History in the Colonial British Atlantic World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina PressGoogle Scholar
  113. Pavord Anna. 2005. The Naming of Names: The Search for Order in the World of Plants. London: BloomsburyGoogle Scholar
  114. Raven Charles E. 1986. John Ray, Naturalist: His Life and His Works. 2 ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  115. Ray, John. 1686–1704. Historia Plantarum. London: H. FaithorneGoogle Scholar
  116. Ray, John. 1848. The Correspondence of John Ray. Edwin Lankester (ed.). London: Ray SocietyGoogle Scholar
  117. Redi, Carlo Alberto, Garagna, Silvia, Zuccotti, Maurizio, Capanna, Ernesto and Zacharia, Helmut (eds.). 2000. Visual Zoology: The Pavia Collection of Leuckart’s Zoological Wall Charts (1877). Pavia: IbisGoogle Scholar
  118. Reeds Karen. 2004. When the Botanist can’t Draw: the Case of Linnaeus. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 29(3): 248–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Richard, Louis-Claude and Lindley, John. 1819. Observations on the structure of fruits and seeds, translated from the Analyse du fruit of M. Louis-Claude Richard … Comprising the author’s latest corrections; and illustrated with plates and original notes by John Lindley. Translated by Lindley, John. London: John HardingGoogle Scholar
  120. Robson Stephen. 1777. The British Flora. York: W. Blanchard and CompanyGoogle Scholar
  121. Roscoe William. 1815. On Artificial and Natural Arrangements of Plants: and Particularly on the Systems of Linnaeus and Jussieu. Transactions of the Linnean Society 11: 50–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Roscoe, William. 1830. “On Artificial and Natural Arrangements of Plants: and Particularly on the␣Systems of Linnaeus and Jussieu.” Philosophical Magazine 7(37): 15–23, 7(38): 97–104; 7(39): 180–185Google Scholar
  123. Rossi, Paolo. 2000. Logic and the Art of Memory: The Quest for a Universal Language. Translated by Clucas, Stephen. London: The Athlone PressGoogle Scholar
  124. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1796. Letters on the elements of botany, addressed to a lady, by the celebrated J. J. Rousseau. Translated into English, with notes, and twenty-four additional letters, fully explaining the system of Linnaeus. Translated by Martyn, Thomas, 5 ed. London: B. and J. WhiteGoogle Scholar
  125. Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1983. Le botaniste sans maître, ou, manière d’apprendre seul la botanique; fragments␣pour un dictionnaire des termes d’usage en botanique. Edited by Haudricourt, A.␣G. Paris: Éditions A.M. MÉtailiÉGoogle Scholar
  126. Salisbury, William. 1816. The Botanist’s Companion, or An Introduction to the Knowledge of Practical Botany, and the Uses of Plants Either Growing Wild in Great Britain, or Cultivated for the Purposes of Agriculture, Medicine, Rural Oeconomy, or the Arts. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and BrownGoogle Scholar
  127. Saunders Samuel. 1792. A Short and Easy Introduction to Scientific and Philosophic Botany. London: B. White and SonsGoogle Scholar
  128. Scharf, Sara Tovah. 2007. “Identification Keys and the Natural Method: The Development of Text-Based Information Management Tools in Botany in the Long Eighteenth Century.” Ph D thesis. Toronto: University of TorontoGoogle Scholar
  129. Schiebinger Londa. 2003. The Philosopher’s Beard: Women and Gender in Science. In Porter R. (eds) Eighteenth-Century Science. 184–210. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  130. Schiebinger Londa. 2004. Plants and Empire: Colonial Bioprospecting in the Atlantic World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  131. Schmidt Diane. 1999. A Field Guide to Field Guides: Identifying the Natural History of North America. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries UnlimitedGoogle Scholar
  132. Schmidt Diane. 2006. Field Guides in Academe: A Citation Study. Journal of Academic Librarianship 32(3): 274–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Secord Anne. 1996. Artisan Botany. In Jardine N., Secord J.A., Spary E.C. (eds) Cultures of Natural History. 378–393. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  134. Secord Anne. 2002. Botany on a Plate. Isis 93: 28–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shteir Ann B. 1996. Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science : Flora’s Daughters and Botany in England, 1760–1860. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University PressGoogle Scholar
  136. Slaughter Mary M. 1982. Universal Languages and Scientific Taxonomy in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  137. Smellie, William. 1790. The Philosophy of Natural History. Edinburgh: the heirs of Charles Elliot and C. Elliot and T. Kay, T. Cadel, and G. G. J. & J. RobinsonsGoogle Scholar
  138. Smith James Edward. 1798. Discourse on the Rise and Progress of Natural History. In Smith, James Edward (eds) Tracts Relating to Natural History. 49–162. London: J. DavisGoogle Scholar
  139. Smolker Robert E. 1967. Birds of North America. A Guide to Field Identification. Chandler S. Robbins; Bertel Brun; Herbert S. Zim. The Quarterly Review of Biology 42(4): 556–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sowerby, James and Smith, James Edward, Sir. 1814. General indexes to the thirty-six volumes of English botany; to which is added, an alphabetical index to English fungi; making together, a catalogue of indigenous British plants. London: James SowerbyGoogle Scholar
  141. Spary Emma C. 2000. Utopia’s Garden: French Natural History from Old Regime to Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  142. Stafleu, Frans A. 1966. “Introduction.” In Familles des plantes. Lehre: J. CramerGoogle Scholar
  143. Stafleu Frans Antoine. 1971. Linnaeus and the Linnaeans: The Spreading of Their Ideas in Systematic Botany, 1735–1789. Utrecht: A. OosthoekGoogle Scholar
  144. Stearn W.T. 1959. The Background of Linnaeus’s Contributions to the Nomenclature and Methods of Systematic Biology. Systematic Zoology 8(1): 4–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Stearn William T. 1986. The Wilkins Lecture, 1985: John Wilkins, John Ray and Carl Linnaeus. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 40(2): 101–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Stearn William T. 1989. S. F. Gray’s Natural Arrangement of British Plants (1821). Plant Systematics and Evolution 167(1–2): 23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Stearn William T., Bridson Gavin D.R. 1978. Carl Linnaeus 1707–1778: A Bicentenary Guide to the Career and Achievements of Linnaeus and the Collections of the Linnean Society. Cambridge: Linnean Society of LondonGoogle Scholar
  148. Stevens Peter F. 1994. The Development of Biological Systematics: Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, Nature, and the Natural System. New York: Columbia University PressGoogle Scholar
  149. Stevenson, R.D., Haber, William A. and Morris, Robert A. 2003. “Electronic Field Guides and User Communities in the Eco-Informatics Revolution.” Conservation Ecology 7(1): 3 [article 3 – unpaginated]Google Scholar
  150. Stuart, John, Earl of Bute. 1787. The Tabular Distribution of British Plants, Part I. Containing the genera: J. DavisGoogle Scholar
  151. Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de. 1694. Elémens de botanique, ou methode pour connoître les plantes. Paris: Imprimerie RoyaleGoogle Scholar
  152. Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de, and Jolyclerc, Nicolas. 1797. Elémens de botanique, ou méthode pour connoitre les plantes, par Pitton de Tournefort. Edition augmentée de tous les supplémens donnés par Antoine de Jussieu; enrichie d’une concordance avec les classes, les ordres du systême sexuel de Linné, et les familles naturelles créées par␣Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu [sic]; mise à la portée de tous les hommes par l’interprétation française du texte grec ou latin des espèces admises dans les auteurs, par des additions très-considérables au dictionnaire des termes du botaniste, etc. Par N.␣Jolyclerc  … 6 vols. Lyon: Pierre Bernuset et compGoogle Scholar
  153. Trelease William, Bailey W. Whitman, Knowlton F.H. 1886. Arrangement of Herbaria, Etc. Botanical Gazette 11(5): 120–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Turner A.J. 1978. Andrew Paschall’s Tables of Plants for the Universal Language, 1678. The Bodleian Library Record 9: 346–350Google Scholar
  155. Weeks Sally S., Weeks Harmon P. Jr., Parker George R. 2005. Native Trees of the Midwest: Identification, Wildlife Values, and Landscaping Use. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University PressGoogle Scholar
  156. Weidensaul Scott. 2007. Of a Feather: A Brief History of American Birding. Orlando: HarcourtGoogle Scholar
  157. Williams Roger L. 2001. Botanophilia in Eighteenth-Century France. International Archives of the History of Ideas 179. Dordrecht: KluwerGoogle Scholar
  158. Withering, William. 1776. A Botanical Arrangement of all the Vegetables Naturally Growing in Great Britain … Illustrated by Copper Plates and a Copious Glossary. Birmingham: M. SwinneyGoogle Scholar
  159. Withering William, Stokes Jonathan 1787. A Botanical Arrangement of British Plants. 2nd ed. Birmingham: M. SwinneyGoogle Scholar
  160. Wunderlin Richard P., Hansen Bruce F. 2003. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. 2 ed. Gainesville: University Press of FloridaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and TechnologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations