Downregulation of the long noncoding RNA TUG1 inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion and promotes apoptosis of renal cell carcinoma
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Long non-coding RNAs, a newly discovered category of noncoding genes, play a leading role in various biological processes, including tumorigenesis. In our study, we aimed to examine the TUG1 expression, and explore the influence of TUG1 silencing on cell proliferation and apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. The TUG1 expression level was detected using quantitative real-time PCR reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 40 paired clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and adjacent paired normal tissues, as well as four RCC cell lines and one normal human proximal tubule epithelial cell line HK-2. Small interfering RNA was applied to suppress the TUG1 expression in RCC cell lines (A489 and A704). In vitro assays were conducted to further deliberate its potential functions in RCC progression. The relative TUG1 expression was significantly higher in ccRCC tissues compared to the adjacent normal renal tissues. In addition, higher TUG1 expression was equally detected in RCC cell lines (particularly in A498 and A704) compared to HK-2. The ccRCC specimens with higher TUG1 expression had a higher Fuhrman grade and larger tumor size than those with lower TUG1 expression. In vitro assays results suggested that knockdown of TUG1 suppressed RCC cells migration, invasion and proliferation, while the apoptosis process was activated. Our results indicate that TUG1 is identified as a novel oncogene in the morbid state of RCC, which potentially acts as a therapeutic target/biomarker in RCC.
KeywordsTUG1 Renal cell carcinoma siRNA–TUG1 Biomarker
Long non-coding RNA
Taurine upregulated gene 1
Renal cell carcinoma
Reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction
Small interfering RNA
Colon cancer associated transcript 2
Non-small cell lung carcinoma
Cell Counting Kit-8
International Business Machines Corporation
American Joint Committee on Cancer
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
Conceived and designed the study: S. W. and Z. C. Execution and performed the experiments: M. Z., W. L. and Y. H. Analyzed and interpreted the data: M. Z., Y. H. and W. L. Contributed materials: M. Z. and Y. H. Drafted the manuscript: M. Z., W. L. and Y. H. Critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content: S. W. and Z. C.
This work was supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81502207, 81201579 and 81301740), Shenzhen Basic Research Project (JCYJ20130401114928183; JCYJ20140416180323426), Shenzhen Knowledge Innovation Project (JCYJ20130401114715714), the Project of Science and Technology of Shenzhen (Technological Innovation Project: No. CXZZ20120614154434310) and the Plan of the Construction of Innovative Environment in Shenzhen (Key Laboratory: No.ZDSY20130531165409949).
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Conflict of interest
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