TSG-6 protein expression in the pancreatic islets of NOD mice
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The histologic hallmark of the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is insulitis, characterized by leukocytic infiltration of the pancreatic islets. The molecules controlling the early influx of leukocytes into the islets are poorly understood. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) is involved in inflammation, extracellular matrix formation, cell migration, and development. In the present study, we examined the expression and cellular localization of TSG-6 protein in islets of female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice using frozen section immunofluorescence staining. Pancreata from nondiabetic (8 and 25 weeks old), prediabetic (230–280 mg/dl blood glucose) and diabetic (>300 mg/dl blood glucose) NOD mice were stained for TSG-6, insulin, CD3, CD11c, Mac3 and CD31. TSG-6 protein was detected in 67% of islets of prediabetic mice, 27% of islets of 25-week old nondiabetic mice, and less than 7% of islets of diabetic mice and 8-week old nondiabetic mice. Lastly, islet-derived TSG-6 protein was localized to the infiltrating CD3 and CD11c positive leukocytes.