Higher Education

, Volume 59, Issue 5, pp 543–565 | Cite as

The impact of new public management instruments on PhD education

Article

Abstract

New public governance emphasises less state, more market and more hierarchy as the cornerstones for effective steering of higher education institutions. Based on an explorative analysis of qualitative and quantitative data of fourteen German and European economics departments, we investigate the steering effects of six new public management instruments in the years 2001 and 2002 on subsequent placement success of PhD graduates. Using crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to analyse the data, our results deliver strong support for the positive effects of competition for resources and the varying effects of hierarchy on PhD education. Governance of successful departments is characterised by two solutions: transparency over academic achievements as one single success factor in each solution or a combination of additionalfunding based on national competitive performance with either nopublic policy regulations for departments or nouniversity regulations for departments. Governance of unsuccessful departments is characterised by one solution: universityregulations for departments or a combination of noadditionalfunding based on nationalcompetitive performance and notransparency over academic achievements. Our results strengthen the strong impact of selected competitive mechanisms as an effective governance instrument and the partially detrimental effects of state regulations. University regulations turn out to be successful if they increase transparency over academic achievements by faculty members. Success is unlikely if those rules intervene into PhD education.

Keywords

New public management instruments Competition State regulation Hierarchy PhD education QCA 

References

  1. Aghion, P., Dewatripont, M., Hoxby, C. M., Mas-Colell, A., & Sapir, A. (2009). The governance and performance of research universities: Evidence from Europe and the U.S. NBER Working Paper 14851. http://www.nber.org/papers/w14851. Accessed May 2009.
  2. Amir, R., & Knauff, M. (2008). Ranking economics departments worldwide on the basis of PhD placement. Review of Economics and Statistics, 90(1), 185–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Backes-Gellner, U. (1992). Berufsethos und akademische Bürokratie–Zur Effizienz alternativer Motivations- und Kontrollmechanismen im Vergleich deutscher und US-amerikanischer Hochschulen. Zeitschrift für Personalforschung, 6(4), 403–435.Google Scholar
  4. Backes-Gellner, U. (2001). Indikatorenorientierte Mittelvergabe in der Universität: Chancen und Risiken. In I. Ebsen & R. Ewert (Eds.), Das Neue Steuerungsmodell und die Universitätsreform (pp. 61–78). Frankfurt am Main: Ein Tagungsband.Google Scholar
  5. Bartelse, J. (1999). Concentrating the minds. Utrecht: Uitgeverij Lemma.Google Scholar
  6. Berghoff, S., Federkeil, G., Giebisch, P., Hachmeister, C.-D., & Müller-Böling, D. (2002). Das Forschungsranking deutscher Universitäten. Centrum für Hochschulentwicklung, Arbeitspapier 40. http://www.che.de/downloads/AP40.pdf. Accessed July 2009.
  7. Berning, E., & Falk, S. (2004). Promotionsstudien: ein Beitrag zur Eliteförderung. Beiträge zur Hochschulforschung, 3, 54–77.Google Scholar
  8. BMBF. (2005). Bund-Länder-Vereinbarung gemäß Artikel 91 b des Grundgesetzes (Forschungsförderung) über die Exzellenzinitiative des Bundes und der Länder zur Förderung von Wissenschaft und Forschung an deutschen Hochschulen. Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung. http://www.bmbf.de/pub/pm19_2005-anlage-vereinbarung.pdf. Accessed Aug 2008.
  9. Bowen, W. G., & Rudenstine, N. L. (1992). In pursuit of the Ph.D. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Braun, D., & Merrien, F.-X. (1999). Governance of universities and modernization of the state: Analytical aspects. In D. Braun & F.-X. Merrien (Eds.), Towards a new model of governance for universities? A comparative view (pp. 9–33). London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  11. Breneman, D. W. (1976). The Ph.D. production process. In J. T. Froomkin, D. T. Jamison, & R. Radner (Eds.), Education as an industry (pp. 1–52). Cambridge: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  12. Burris, V. (2004). The academic caste system: Prestige hierarchies in PhD exchange networks. American Sociological Review, 69, 239–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clark, B. R. (1983). The higher education system. Academic organizations in cross-national perspective. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Clark, B. R. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities: Organizational pathways of transformation. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  15. Colander, D. (2008). The making of a global european economist. Kyklos, 1(2), 215–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Combes, P.-P., & Linnemer, L. (2003). Where are the economists who publish? Publication concentration and rankings in Europe based on cumulative publications. Journal of the European Economic Association, 1(6), 1250–1308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coupé, T. (2003). Revealed performances: Worldwide ranking of economists and economics departments, 1990–2000. Journal of the European Economic Association, 1(6), 1309–1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cronqvist, L. (2007). TOSMANA. Tool for small-N analysis. http://www.tosmana.net/. Accessed 1 June 2008.
  19. Dahan, A. (2007). Institutional change and professional practices: The case of the French doctoral studies. In Paper presented at AOM Academy of Management, 8. Philadelphia (USA).Google Scholar
  20. Dahan, A., & Mangematin, V. (2007). Institutional change and professional practices: The case of the French doctoral education. In Paper presented at the Première conférence internationale du RESUP “Les Universités et leurs marchés” in Paris, Feb, 1st–3rd 2007.Google Scholar
  21. Davis, G. (2003). A contract state? New public management in Australia. In P. Koch & P. Conrad (Eds.), New public service (pp. 177–197). Wiesbaden: Gabler.Google Scholar
  22. De Boer, H., Leisyte, L., & Enders, J. (2006). The Netherlands—steering from a distance. In B. Kehm & U. Lanzendorf (Eds.), Reforming university governance. Changing conditions for research in four European countries (pp. 29–96). Bonn: Lemmens.Google Scholar
  23. De Boer, H., Enders, J., & Schimank, U. (2007). On the way towards new public management? The governance of university systems in England, the Netherlands, Austria and Germany. In D. Jansen (Ed.), New forms of governance in research organizations (pp. 137–152). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Weert, E. (2004). The Netherlands. In J. Sadlak (Ed.), Doctoral studies and qualifications in Europe and the United States: Status and prospects (pp. 77–97). Bucharest: UNESCO-Cepes.Google Scholar
  25. DFG. (2000). Die zukünftige Förderung des wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses durch die DFG. Empfehlungen der Präsidialarbeitsgruppe Nachwuchsförderung. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. http://www.dfg.de/aktuelles_presse/reden_stellungnahmen/2000/index.html. Accessed 17 Oct 2003.
  26. DFG. (2003). Entwicklung und Stand des Programms “Graduiertenkollegs”—Erhebung 2003. http://www.dfg.de/forschungsfoerderung/koordinierte_programme/graduiertenkollegs/download/erhebung2003.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2008.
  27. Ehrenberg, R. G. (2004). Prospects in the academic labor market for economists. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18, 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. ENB. (2008). Incentives—Bavarian graduate program in economics (BGPE). Elitenetzwerk Bayern. http://www.elitenetzwerk.bayern.de/54.0.html. Accessed 5 Aug 2008.
  29. Enders, J., & Bornmann, L. (2001). Karriere mit Doktortitel? Ausbildung, Berufsverlauf und Berufserfolg von Promovierten. Frankfurt: Campus.Google Scholar
  30. European Commission. (2004). Mapping of excellence in economics. ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/indicators/docs/mpe_en.pdf. Accessed 1 Sep 2008.
  31. European Research Council. (2008). ERC starting grant competition 2007—results. European Research Council. http://erc.europa.eu/pdf/Listfinal.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2008.
  32. Fabel, O., Lehmann, E., & Warning, S. (2002). Vorträge im offenen Teil der Jahrestagung des Vereins für Socialpolitik und Promotionshäufigkeiten als Qualitätsindikatoren für Universitäten. In U. Backes-Gellner & C. Schmidtke (Eds.), Hochschulökonomie–Analyse interner Steuerungsprobleme und gesamtwirtschaftliche Effekte (pp. 13–31). Berlin: Duncker und Humblot.Google Scholar
  33. Frey, B. (2007). Evaluierungen, evaluierungen… evaluitis. Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, 8(3), 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Groneberg, M. (2007). Doktorierende in der Schweiz. Portrait 2006. Center for Science and Technology Studies. http://www.cest.ch/Publikationen/2007/Doktorierende%20in%20der%20Schweiz.pdf. Accessed Aug 2008.
  35. Grüning, G. (2000). Grundlagen des new public management: Entwicklung, theoretischer Hintergrund und wissenschaftliche Bedeutung des New Public Management aus Sicht der politisch-administrativen Wissenschaften der USA. Münster: LIT.Google Scholar
  36. Hammen, A. (2005). Hochschulen im Positionierungswettbewerb. Ehemalige britische Polytechnics im Forschungswettbewerb–Eine empirische analyse. Trier: Diplomarbeit.Google Scholar
  37. Harvey, L. (2004). The power of accreditation: View of academics. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 26(2), 207–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Henkel, M. (2000). Academic identities and policy change in higher education. London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  39. Hilmer, C. E., & Hilmer, M. J. (2007). On the relationship between the student–advisor match and early career research productivity for agricultural and resource economics Ph.D.s. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 89(1), 162–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hüfner, K. (2004). Germany. In J. Sadlak (Ed.), Doctoral studies and qualifications in Europe and the United States: Status and prospects (pp. 51–61). Bucharest: UNESCO-Cepes.Google Scholar
  41. Jaeger, M., Leszczensky, M., Orr, D., & Schwarzenberger, A. (2005). Formelgebundene Mittelvergabe und Zielvereinbarungen als Instrumente der Budgetierung an deutschen Universitäten: Ergebnisse einer bundesweiten Befragung. HIS-Kurzinformation, A13.Google Scholar
  42. Jansen, D., Wald, A., Franke, K., Schmoch, U., & Schubert, T. (2007). Drittmittel als Performanzindikator der wissenschaftlichen Forschung. Zum Einfluss von Rahmenbedingungen auf Forschungsleistung. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 59(1), 125–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kehm, B., & Lanzendorf, U. (2006a). Germany—16 Länder approaches to reform. In B. Kehm & U. Lanzendorf (Eds.), Reforming university governance. Changing conditions for research in four European countries (pp. 135–186). Bonn: Lemmens.Google Scholar
  44. Kehm, B., & Lanzendorf, U. (2006b). Comparison: Changing conditions for research through new governance. In B. Kehm & U. Lanzendorf (Eds.), Reforming university governance. Changing conditions for research in four European countries (pp. 187–212). Bonn: Lemmens.Google Scholar
  45. Kehm, B., & Lanzendorf, U. (2007). The impacts of university management on academic work: Reform experiences in Austria and Germany. Management Revue, 18(2), 153–173.Google Scholar
  46. Lanzendorf, U. (2006). Austria—from hesitation to rapid breakthrough. In B. Kehm & U. Lanzendorf (Eds.), Reforming university governance. Changing conditions for research in four European countries (pp. 99–134). Bonn: Lemmens.Google Scholar
  47. Leisyte, L. (2007). University governance and academic research. http://www.utwente.nl/cheps/phdportal/CHEPS%20Alumni%20and%20Their%20Theses/thesisleisyte.pdf. Accessed April 2009.
  48. Leisyte, L., de Boer, H., & Enders, J. (2006). England–the prototype of the ‚evaluative state’. In B. Kehm & U. Lanzendorf (Eds.), Reforming university governance. Changing conditions for research in four European countries (pp. 21–57). Bonn: Lemmens.Google Scholar
  49. Lemerle, J. (2004). France. In J. Sadlak (Ed.), Doctoral studies and qualifications in Europe and the United States: status and prospects (pp. 37–50). Bucharest: UNESCO-Cepes.Google Scholar
  50. Leszczensky, M., & Orr, D. (2004). Kurzinformation A2/2004: Staatliche Hochschulfinanzierung durch indikatorgestützte Mittelverteilung. Hannover: HIS.Google Scholar
  51. Lucas, L. (2006). The research game in academic life. Maidenhead: SRHE and Open University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Marx, A. (2006). Towards more robust model specification in QCA results from a methodological experiment. In Compass Working Paper (p. 43).Google Scholar
  53. Mayntz, R. (2005). Governance theory als fortentwickelte Steuerungstheorie? In G. F. Schuppert (Ed.), Governance-forschung. Vergewisserung über stand und entwicklungslinien (pp. 11–20). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  54. McDaniel, O. C. (1996). The paradigms of governance in higher education systems. Higher Education Policy, 9(2), 137–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Metcalfe, J., Thomson, Q., & Green, H. (2002). Improving standards in postgraduate research degree programmes. Higher Education funding council for England. http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/RDreports/2002/rD6_02/rD6_02.pdf. Accessed Aug 2008.
  56. Moscati, R. (2004). Italy. In J. Sadlak (Ed.), Doctoral studies and qualifications in Europe and the United States: Status and prospects (pp. 63–76). Bucharest: UNESCO-Cepes.Google Scholar
  57. Park, C. (2005). New variant PhD: The changing nature of the doctorate in the UK. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 27(2), 189–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ragin, C. C. (1987). The comparative method. Moving beyond qualitative and quantitative strategies. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  59. Ragin, C. C. (2000). Fuzzy-set social science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  60. Ragin, C. C. (2006). Set relations in social research: Evaluating their consistency and coverage. Political Analysis, 14(3), 291–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ragin, C. C., Drass, K. A., & Davey, S. (2006). Fuzzy-set/qualitative comparative analysis 2.0. Tucson, AZ: Department of Sociology, University of Arizona.Google Scholar
  62. Rauber, M., & Ursprung, H. W. (2008). Evaluation of researchers: A life cycle analysis of German academic economists. In M. Albert, D. Schmidtchen, & S. Voigt (Eds.), Conferences on new political economy 25, scientific competition (pp. 101–122). Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.Google Scholar
  63. Sadlak, J. (2004). Doctoral studies and qualifications in Europe and the United States: Status and prospects. Bucharest: UNESCO-Cepes.Google Scholar
  64. Sadowski, D., Schneider, P., & Thaller, N. (2008). Do we need incentives for PhD supervisors? European Journal of Education, 43(3), 315–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schedler, K., & Proeller, I. (2000). New public management. Bern: Haupt.Google Scholar
  66. Schimank, U. (2005). ‘New public management’ and the academic profession: Reflections on the German situation. Minerva, 43, 361–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schimank, U. (2006). Zielvereinbarungen in der Misstrauensfalle. Die Hochschule, 2, 7–18.Google Scholar
  68. Schimank, U. (2007). Die governance-perspektive: Analytisches potenzial und anstehende konzeptionelle Fragen. In H. Altrichter, T. Brüsemeister, & J. Wissinger (Eds.), Educational governance. Handlungskoordination und steuerung im Bildungssystem (pp. 231–260). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  69. Schimank, U. (2008). Ökonomisierung der Hochschulen–eine Makro-Meso-Mikro-Perspektive. In K.-S. Rehberg (Ed.), Die natur der gesellschaft. Verhandlungen des 33. Kongresses der Deutschen Gesellschaft für soziologie in Kassel 2006 (pp. 622–635). Frankfurt: Campus.Google Scholar
  70. Schneider, M. (2007). Zielvorgaben und organisationskultur: Eine fallstudie. Die Betriebswirtschaft, 6, 621–639.Google Scholar
  71. Schneider, M., & Sadowski, D. (2004). Performancemanagement in der öffentlichen Verwaltung–eine unlösbare Aufgabe. Die Verwaltung, 37(3), 377–399.Google Scholar
  72. Schneider, P., Thaller, N., & Sadowski, D. (2009). Success and failure of PhD programs: An empirical study of the interplay between interests, resources and organizations. In D. Jansen (Ed.), Governance and performance in the German public research sector; disciplinary differences. Dordrecht: Springer. (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  73. Shanghai Jiao Tong University Ranking. (2005). Top 500 world universities. Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/2005/ARWU2005TOP500list.htm. Accessed 1 Aug 2008.
  74. Stensaker, B. (2000). Quality as discourse: An analysis of external audit reports in Sweden 1995–1998. Tertiary Education and Management, 6, 305–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stensaker, B., & Harvey, L. (2006). Old wine in new bottles? A comparison of public and private accreditation schemes in higher education. Higher Education Policy, 19, 65–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. STRATA-ETAN Expert Working Group. (2002). Human resources in RTD (including attractiveness of S&T professions). ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/era/docs/bench_0802.pdf. Accessed Aug 2008.
  77. Van Vught, F. A. (1997). Combining planning and the market: an analysis of the government strategy towards higher education in the Netherlands. Higher Education Policy, 10(3/4), 211–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Veugelers, R., & van der Ploeg, F. (2008). Reforming European universities: Scope for an evidence-based process. CESIFO Working Paper (p. 2298).Google Scholar
  79. Weichselbaumer, J. (2007). Hochschulinterne Steuerung über Zielvereinbarungen–ein prozessbegleitender ökonomischer Ansatz an der TU München. Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, 5, 157–172.Google Scholar
  80. Wissenschaftsrat. (2002). Empfehlungen zur Doktorandenausbildung. Wissenschaftsrat. http://www.wissenschaftsrat.de/texte/5459-02.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2008.
  81. Wissenschaftsrat. (2006). Empfehlungen zur künftigen Rolle der Universitäten im Wissenschaftssystem. http://www.wissenschaftsrat.de/texte/7067-06.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2008.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the EU (IAAEG)University of TrierTrierGermany

Personalised recommendations