Advertisement

Higher Education

, 57:141 | Cite as

Hypnosis-induced mental training programmes as a strategy to improve the self-concept of students

  • H. M. De Vos
  • D. A. LouwEmail author
Article

Abstract

The creation and implementation of strategies that could improve student development is receiving new research interest. The main objective of the research was to establish whether hypnosis-induced mental training programmes as a strategy could alter the self-concept of students which in turn could improve their overall academic functioning. Two experimental and two control groups were randomly selected from a population of undergraduate psychology students at the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa. The analysis of variance showed that the two hypnosis-induced mental training programmes had a significant positive effect on the self-concept of the participants.

Keywords

Hypnosis Mental training programmes Self-concept Strategy Students South Africa 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to Drs. Beverley Peens and Lyzette Hoffman for their editorial assistance.

References

  1. Aroaz, D. L. (1981). Negative self-hypnosis. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 12, 45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aroaz, D. L. (1982). Hypnosis and sex therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  3. Aroaz, D. L. (1985). The new hypnosis. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  4. Banyai, E. I. (1980). A new way to induce a hypnotic-like altered state of conscious: Active alert induction. In L. Kardos & C. Plēh (Eds.), Problems of the regulation of activity (pp. 261–273). Budapest: Akadēmiai Kiadō.Google Scholar
  5. Banyai, E. I., & Hilgard, E. R. (1976). A comparison of active-alert hypnotic induction with traditional relaxation induction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 218–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banyai, E., Mezaros, I., & Greguss, A. C. (1983). Psychophysiological comparison of active-alert and traditional relaxation hypnosis. In R. Sinz & M. R. Rosenzweig (Eds.), Psychophysiology (pp. 225–230). Amsterdam: Gustav Fischer and Elsevier Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  7. Banyai, E. I., Zseni, A., & Tury, F. (1993). Active-alert hypnosis in psychotherapy. In J. Rhue, S. J. Lynn, & I. Kirsch (Eds.), Handbook of clinical hypnosis (pp. 271–291). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barabasz, A. F., Barabasz, M., Jensen, S., & Calvin, D. (1999). Cortical event-related potentials show that the structure of hypnotic suggestions is crucial. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 47(1), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (1962). Dimensions of therapist reports as casual factors in therapeutic change. Psychological Monographs, 76, 43–51.Google Scholar
  10. Barrett-Lennard, G. T. (1972). Group process analysis from post-session and follow-up data. Group Process Study Papers No. 5. Ontario: University of Waterloo Library.Google Scholar
  11. Bengston, K., Reedy, S. M., & Gordon, S. M. (1985). Ageing and self-conceptions: Personality processes and social contexts. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of psychology of ageing (2nd ed). New York: Van Nostrand Reinholdt.Google Scholar
  12. Bodibe, C., & Sodi, T. (1997). Indigenous healing. In D. Foster, M. Freeman, & Y. Pillay (Eds.), Mental health policy issues for South Africa (pp. 181–192). Pinelands, SA: The Medical Association of South Africa.Google Scholar
  13. Boulter, L. T. (2002). Self-concept as a predictor of college freshman academic adjustment. College Student Journal, 36(2), 234–246.Google Scholar
  14. Boutin, G. E. (1990). Treatment of test anxiety by rational stage directed hypnotherapy. Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis, 10(2), 65–72.Google Scholar
  15. Boutin, G. E., & Tosi, D. J. (1983). Modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety through rational stage directed hypnotherapy (RSDH). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 382–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buss, A. H. (1980). Self-consciousness and social anxiety. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  17. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1981). Attention and self-regulation: A control theory approach to human behaviour. New York: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  18. Cikurel, K., & Gruzelier, J. A. (1990). The effect of an active-alert hypnotic induction on lateral asymmetry in habtic processing. In J. H. Gruzelier (Ed.), A working model of neurophysiology of hypnotic relaxation (pp. 201–225). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  19. Cooper, I. (1990). The use of study-skills and self-hypnosis training groups to enhance academic achievement in university students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(11), 5310B.Google Scholar
  20. Cox, B. J., Ross, L., Swinson, R. P., & Direnfeld, D. M. (1998). A comparison of social phobia outcome measures in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Behavior Modification, 22, 285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Diamond, M. J. (1989). The cognitive skills model: An emerging paradigm for investigating hypnotic phenomena. In N. P. Spanos & J. F. Chaves (Eds.), Hypnosis: The cognitive-behavioral perspective (pp. 380–398). Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  22. Feist, E. (1989). Getting rid of the simple and fragile self. Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis, 10(2), 101–112.Google Scholar
  23. Fellows, B. J., & Richardson, J. (1993). Relaxed and alert hypnosis: An experiential comparison. Contemporary Hypnosis, 10(1), 49–54.Google Scholar
  24. Field, A. (2000). Discovering statistics using SPSS for windows. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Fritscholtz, E. J. (1996). Clinical hypnosis research. Paper delivered at the 7th European Congress of Hypnosis, Budapest, Hungary.Google Scholar
  26. Fromm, E. (1987). Significant developments in clinical hypnosis during the past 25 years. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 35(4), 295–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Golden, W. L., Dowd, E. T., & Friedberg, F. (1987). Hypnotherapy: A modern approach. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gould, R. C., & Krynicki, V. E. (1989). Comparative effectiveness of hypnotherapy on different psychological symptoms. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 32, 110–117.Google Scholar
  29. Grant, D. H. (1983). The use of hypnosis and suggestions to improve study habits, study attitudes, self-concept, and reduction of test anxiety. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43(6-B).Google Scholar
  30. Greeff, A. P. (1988). ‘n Ondersoek na die verband tussen drie selfkonsepvraelyste en die daarstelling van ‘n voorlopige vraelys. Ongepubliseerde magistertesis, Universiteit van Stellenbosch.Google Scholar
  31. Hadley, J., & Standaucher, C. (1985). Hypnosis for change. Ontario: Harkinger Publications.Google Scholar
  32. Hammond, D. C. (1990). Handbook of hypnotic suggestions and metaphors. New York: W.W Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  33. Hart, D., & Karmel, M. P. (1996). Self-awareness and self-knowledge in humans, apes, monkeys. In A. E. Russon, K. A. Bard, & S. T. Barker (Eds.), Reaching into thought: The mind of the great apes (pp. 325–347). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Heimberg, R. G. (1991). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of social phobia in a group setting: A treatment manual. Unpublished manuscript, Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, University of Albany, State University of New York.Google Scholar
  35. Hilgard, E. R. (1987). Psychology in America: A historical survey. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  36. Howell, D. C. (1997). Statistical methods. Belmont, CA: Duxbury.Google Scholar
  37. Johnson, L. S., Johnson, D. L., Olson, M. R., & Newman, J. P. (1981). The uses of hypnotherapy with learning disabled children. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37(2), 291–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jung, C. G. (1969). The structure of the psyche. In The collected works of C.G. Jung (Vol. 8). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (Original work published 1931).Google Scholar
  39. Kass, R. G., & Fish, J. M. (1991). Positive reframing and the test performance of test anxious children. Psychology in the Schools, 28, 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kelly, P. J. (1985). The relationship between hypnotic ability and hypnotic experience. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Waterloo, Canada.Google Scholar
  41. Kihlstrom, J. F. (1997). Consciousness and me-ness. In J. Cohen & J. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific approaches to the question of consciousness (pp. 451–468). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Kihlstrom, J. F. (1999). Conscious versus unconscious cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  43. Kirsch, I., & Lynn, S. J. (1995). The altered state of hypnosis: Changes in the theoretical landscape. American Psychologist, 50, 846–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kroener-Herwig, B., & Denecke, H. (2002). Cognitive behavioral therapy of pediatric headache and stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53(6), 1107–1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Laidlaw, T. M., Naito, A., Dwivedi, P., Enzor, N. A., Brincat, C. E., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2003). Mood changes after self-hypnosis and Johrei prior to exams. Contemporary Hypnosis, 20(1), 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liebenberg, C. (1998). Die invloed van wakkerbewussyns-hipnose op die akademiese prestasie van voorgraadse studente. Ongepubliseerde magistertesis, Universiteit van Stellenbosch.Google Scholar
  47. Malott, J. M. (1984). Active-alert hypnosis: Replication and extension of previous research. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 93(2), 246–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Maultsby, M. C. (1984). Rational behavior therapy. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  49. Mbiti, J. S. (1991). African religions and philosophy (2nd ed.). London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  50. Mocke, L. M., Greeff, A. P., & Van der Westhuÿsen, T. W. B. (2002). Aspects of the construct validation of a preliminary self-concept questionnaire. Psychological Reports, 90, 165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Möller, A. T. (1993). Perspektiewe oor persoonlikheid. Durban: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  52. Moore, C. (2003). The ecosystemic approach. In W. Meyer, C. Moore, & H. Viljoen (Eds.), Personology (pp. 462–498). Cape Town: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  53. Mortimer, J. T., Finch, M. D., & Kumka, D. (1982). Persistence and change in development: The multidimensional self-concept. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim (Eds.), Life-span development and behaviour (Vol. 4). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  54. Pinker, S. (1997). How the mind works. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  55. Pritchard, M. E., & Wilson, G. S. (2003). Using emotional and social factors to predict student success. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Reardon, J. P., & Tosi, D. J. (1977). Effects of rational stage directed imagery on self-concept and reduction of psychological stress in adolescent delinquent females. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 1084–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ritzman, T. (1994). Accidental hypnosis in scholastic achievement. Medical Hyperanalysis Journal, 9(4), 149–157.Google Scholar
  58. Robberts, M. J., & Russo, R. (1999). A student’s guide to analysis of variance. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Robins, R. W., & John, O. P. (1997). The quest for self-insight: Theory and research on accuracy and bias in self-perception. In R. Hogan, J. Johnson, & S. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 649–679). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Robins, R. W., Norem, J. K., & Cheek, J. M. (1999). Naturalizing the self. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality (pp. 443–477). London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  61. Rogers, C. R. (1959). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton.Google Scholar
  63. Rogers, C. R. (1975). Empathic: An unappreciated way of being. The Counseling Psychologist, 5(2), 2–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rogers, C. R. (1980). A way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  65. Rogers, C. R., & Dymond, R. F. (1954). Psychotherapy and personality change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  66. Rogers, C. R., Wood, J. K., & Rogers, N. (1975). A person-centered approach: The process of individual growth and its social implications. La Jolla, CA: Center for Studies of the Person.Google Scholar
  67. Sapp, M. (1992). Relaxation and hypnosis in reducing anxiety and stress. Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis, 13(2), 39–55.Google Scholar
  68. Sapp, M. (1996). Three treatments for reducing the worry and emotionality components of test anxiety with undergraduate and graduate college students: Cognitive-behavioral hypnosis, relaxation therapy, and supportive counseling. Journal of College Student Development, 37(1), 79–87.Google Scholar
  69. Sapp, M. (1999). Test anxiety: Applied research, assessment, and treatment interventions (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  70. Sapp, M. (2006). The strength-based model for counseling at-risk youths. The Counseling Psychologist, 34, 108–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Savoy, C., & Beitel, P. (1997). The relative effect of a mental training program on women basketball players. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20(3), 364–375.Google Scholar
  72. Schoenberger, N. E., Kirsch, I., Gearan, P., Montgomery, G., & Pastyrnak, S. L. (1997). Hypnotic enhancement of a cognitive behavioral treatment for public speaking anxiety. Behavior Therapy, 28, 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sedikides, C., & Skowronski, J. J. (1997). Self-evaluation: To thine own self be good, to thine own self be sure, to thine own self be true, and to thine own self be better. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 209–269). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  74. Stanton, H. E. (1980). The modification of student self-concept. Studies in Higher Education, 5(1), 71–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stanton, H. E. (1988). Improving examination performance through the clenched fist technique. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13(4), 309–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stein, C. (1963). The clenched fist technique as a hypnotic procedure in clinical psychotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 6, 113–119.Google Scholar
  77. Stephenson, W. (1980). Newton’s fifth rule and Q methodology: Applications to educational psychology. American Psychologist, 35, 882–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tosi, D. J., Rudy, D. R., Lewis, J., & Murphy, M. A. (1992). The psychobiological effects of cognitive experiential therapy, hypnosis, cognitive restructuring, and attention placebo control in the treatment of essential hypertension. Psychotherapy, 29, 274–284.Google Scholar
  79. Truax, C. B., & Carkhuff, R. R. (1967). Toward effective counselling and psychotherapy: Training and practice. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
  80. Valle, A., Cabanach, R. G., Nunez, J. C., Gonzalez-Pienda, J., Rodriguez, S., & Pineiro, I. (2003). Cognitive, motivational and volitional dimensions of learning. An empirical test of a hypothetical model. Research in Higher Education, 44(5), 557–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang, L., Huddleston, S., & Peng, L. (2003). Psychological skills use by Chinese swimmers. International Sports Journal, 7(1), 48–55.Google Scholar
  82. Wark, D. M. (1996). Teaching college students better learning skills using self-hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 38(4), 277–286.Google Scholar
  83. Watkins, J. G. (2003). Unconscious communication. Hypnos, 30(3), 152–154.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations