Crosstalk amongst phytohormones from planta and PGPR under biotic and abiotic stresses
- 42 Downloads
Phytohormones are endogenously produced organic substances indispensable for regulating plant growth and yield and also play major role in inducing tolerance to plants against various biotic and abiotic stresses. The convergence points among hormone signal transduction cascades are considered as cross-talk which are crucial for plant development as well as for plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Hormones interact by activating either a second messenger or through a phosphorylation cascade. These transduction cascades lead to the regulation of gene expression that directly affects the biosynthesis or action of different hormones and developmental processes in coordination with multiple stimuli. Hormone synthesis, signal transduction, perception and cross-talk create a complex network. Interaction of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which form intimate association with the roots of higher plants also modulate the level of endogenous phytohormones and demonstrate a new paradigm for hormonal interaction. The ratio of hormones changes with ontogeny of plant and the specific ratio of growth promoting and growth inhibiting hormones determine the response of plants. Furthermore, the sensitivity of plant tissue to each hormone changes with the exposure to stresses. This review is a compilation of the interactions between phytohormones and plant development. The cross talk between different hormones under abiotic and biotic stresses will be enumerated. Hormone and stress-responsive cis elements and the trans-regulation capabilities of miRNAs for the coordination of multiple hormonal responses will be discussed. Finally the role of PGPR will be evaluated under various environmental stresses with particular emphasis on phytohormone production and its interaction with host plant physiology. PGPR provides cross protective properties through improvement in defense mechanism controlling pathogen resistance through induced systemic resistance (ISR) and alleviating abiotic stress through influencing the phytohormones metabolism. PGPR isolates from stressed soil/stressed host plants impart tolerance to plants against abiotic and biotic stresses by modulating the production of phytohormones and alteration in their sensitivity to respond. Bacteria communicate with each other through quorum sensing molecules which also regulate gene expression and phytohormone production. The intricate relationship between other microbes/fungi and their residual effects on plant rhizosphere phytohormones need further investigation for better understanding of bacterial coordination with plants.
KeywordsPhytohormone Cross-talk Signaling network Abiotic stresses
N.K. and A.B. wrote the manuscript; M.A.B., and A.B., edited the manuscript, S.A., generated figures and review the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
I testify on behalf of all co-authors that our article has not been published in whole or in part elsewhere; the manuscript is not currently being considered for publication in another journal and all authors have been personally and actively involved in substantive work leading to the manuscript.
- Ahemad M, Kibret M (2014) Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: current perspective. JKSUS 1:20Google Scholar
- Anderson JP, Badruzsaufari E, Schenk PM, Manners JM, Desmond OJ, Ehlert C, Maclean DJ, Ebert PR, Kazan K (2004) Antagonistic interaction between abscisic acid and jasmonate-ethylene signaling pathways modulates defense gene expression and disease resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 1:3479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Berg G, Alavi M, Schmidt CS, Zachow C, Egamberdieva D, Kamilova F, Lugtenberg BJ (2013) Biocontrol and osmoprotection for plants under salinated conditions. Mol Microb Ecol Rhizosphere 3:573Google Scholar
- Cassan F, Perrig D, Sgroy V, Masciarelli O, Penna C, Luna V (2009) Azospirillum brasilense Az39 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109, inoculated singly or in combination, promote seed germination and early seedling growth in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.). Europ J Soil Biol 1:28–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cheng X, Ruyter-Spira C, Bouwmeester H (2013) The interaction between strigolactones and other plant hormones in the regulation of plant development. Front Plant Sci 17:199Google Scholar
- Daszkowska-Golec A, Szarejko I (2013) Open or close the gate–stomata action under the control of phytohormones in drought stress conditions. Front Plant Sci 13:138Google Scholar
- Fernández-Calvo P, Chini A, Fernández-Barbero G, Chico JM, Gimenez-Ibanez S, Geerinck J, Eeckhout D, Schweizer F, Godoy M, Franco-Zorrilla JM, Pauwels L (2011) The Arabidopsis bHLH transcription factors MYC3 and MYC4 are targets of JAZ repressors and act additively with MYC2 in the activation of jasmonate responses. Plant Cell 23:701–715PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Finkelstein R (2013) Abscisic acid synthesis and response. The Arabidopsis Book/American Society of Plant Biologists, Rockville, p 11Google Scholar
- Fraire-Velázquez S, Rodríguez-Guerra R, Sánchez-Calderón L (2011) Abiotic and biotic stress response crosstalk in plants. In: Shanker AK, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Abiotic stress response in plants- physiological, biochemical and genetic perspectives. InTech, Rijeka, pp 3–26Google Scholar
- Ju C, Yoon GM, Shemansky JM, Lin DY, Ying ZI, Chang J, Garrett WM, Kessenbrock M, Groth G, Tucker ML, Cooper B (2012) CTR1 phosphorylates the central regulator EIN2 to control ethylene hormone signaling from the ER membrane to the nucleus in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:19486–19491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kishor PK, Sangam S, Amrutha RN, Laxmi PS, Naidu KR, Rao KR, Rao S, Reddy KJ, Theriappan P, Sreenivasulu N (2005) Regulation of proline biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and transport in higher plants: its implications in plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Curr Sci 88:424–438Google Scholar
- Lackman P, González-Guzmán M, Tilleman S, Carqueijeiro I, Pérez AC, Moses T, Seo M, Kanno Y, Häkkinen ST, Van Montagu MC, Thevelein JM (2011) Jasmonate signaling involves the abscisic acid receptor PYL4 to regulate metabolic reprogramming in Arabidopsis and tobacco. Proc Natl Aca Sci 108:5891–5896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nishiyama R, Watanabe Y, Leyva-Gonzalez MA, Van Ha C, Fujita Y, Tanaka M, Seki M, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K, Herrera-Estrella L, Tran LS (2013) Arabidopsis AHP2, AHP3, and AHP5 histidine phosphotransfer proteins function as redundant negative regulators of drought stress response. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:4840–4845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez M, Rodriguez A, Bayer J, Vilaseca F, Girones J, Mutje P (2010) determination of corn stalk fibers’strength through modeling of the mechanical properties of its composites. BioRes 5:2535–2546Google Scholar
- Schweizer F, Fernández-Calvo P, Zander M, Diez-Diaz M, Fonseca S, Glauser G, Lewsey MG, Ecker JR, Solano R, Reymond P (2013) Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 regulate glucosinolate biosynthesis, insect performance, and feeding behavior. Plant Cell 25:3117–3132PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sivasakthi S, Usharani G, Saranraj P (2014) Biocontrol potentiality of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR)-Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis: A review. Afr J Agric Res 9:1277Google Scholar
- Tuteja N, Gill SS, Trivedi PK, Asif MH, Nath P (2010) Plant growth regulators and their role in stress tolerance. Plant nutrition and abiotic stress tolerance I. Plant Stress 4:18Google Scholar
- Venkateswarlu B, Shanker AK (2009) Climate change and agriculture: adaptation and mitigation stategies. Indian J Agron 54(2):226Google Scholar
- Zhu H, Dardick CD, Beers EP, Callanhan AM, Xia R, Yuan R (2011) Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk. BMC Plant Biol 11:138PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar