Aluminum-induced high IAA concentration may explain the Al susceptibility in Citrus limonia
- 43 Downloads
In acidic soils (pH < 5.0), aluminum (Al) occurs as Al3+, which is phytotoxic and reduces the root growth by hormonal imbalance and/or cell wall rigidity. However, the explanations for the decrease in root growth are not clear. A 60-day study was held with ‘Rangpur’ lime (Citrus limonia) plants grown in nutrient solution containing 0 and 1480 µM Al. We measured plant biometric data and used root apices to analyze auxin (IAA), the expression of some Al-responsive genes that had been differentially expressed in a transcriptome analysis and anatomical profiles. We found up-regulated expression of multidrug and toxic compound exudation (Cl-MATE channel), citrate synthase (Cl-CS) and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (Cl-PMEI) genes, but while Cl-PMEI expression was increased after 7 days, Cl-CS and Cl-MATE were up-regulated only after 60 days, suggesting that the timing of these events was ineffective against Al. These results could be associated with the Al-induced decrease in root growth and anatomical root damage. In addition, genes related to IAA cell transport were not differentially expressed in the transcriptome analysis. Therefore, high IAA and up-regulation of auxin-related small RNAs suggest Al-induced high IAA concentration rather than Al-induced disruption in IAA distribution in root cells of this species.
KeywordsAl3+ Auxin Efflux channels Gene expression ‘Rangpur’ lime Root growth
We acknowledge the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for financial support (474169/2013-8 grant to GH), for an undergraduate scholarship to M.F. Cavalheiro and for research fellowships granted to G. Habermann (Grant 309149/2017-7) and E. Purgatto (Grant 305458/2013-2). We extend acknowledgments to the São Paulo Research Foundation (Fapesp) for PhD scholarships granted to C.M.S. da Silva (Fapesp #2013/11370-3), A.C.G. Bressan (Fapesp #2014/14386-0), a MSc scholarship to B.M.O. Carvalho (Fapesp #2016/14216-3) and a grant to E. Purgatto (Fapesp #2013/07914-8), and also to the Coordination for Improvement of Graduate Personnel (Capes) for a PhD scholarship granted to O.F.A.A. Banhos. We thank the Sanicitrus Nursery (Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil) for providing us with the ‘Rangpur’ lime plants.
- Andrews S (2010) FastQC: a quality control tool for high throughput sequence dataGoogle Scholar
- Cleland RE (2010) Auxin and cell elongation. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant hormones—biosynthesis, signal transduction action! Springer, Ithaca, pp 204–220Google Scholar
- Fischer E, Speier A (1895) Darstellung der ester. Eur J Inorg Chem 28:3252–3258Google Scholar
- Karnovsky MJ (1965) A formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde fixative of high osmolarity for use in electron microscopy. J Cell Biol 27:137–139Google Scholar
- Liu J, Magalhaes JV, Shaff J, Kochian LV, Maize E, Lagoas S, Grosso M (2009) Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance. Plant J 57:389–399. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03696.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lüthen H, Böttger M (1993) The role of protons in the auxin-induced root growth inhibition-A critical reexamination. Plant Biology 106:58–63Google Scholar
- Sarruge JR, Haag HP (1974) Análises químicas em plantas. Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”. Boletim Técnico, PiracicabaGoogle Scholar
- Spartz AK, Ren H, Park MY, Grandt KN, Lee H, Murphy AS, Sussman MR, Overvoorde PJ, Gray WM (2014) SAUR inhibition of PP2C-D phosphatases activates plasma membrane H + - ATPases to promote cell expansion in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 26:2129–2142. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.114.126037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhbannikov IY, Hunter SS, Foster JA, Settles ML (2017) SeqyClean: a pipeline for high-throughput sequence data preprocessing. In Proceedings of the 8th ACM International Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, and Health Informatics, pp 407–416. (ACM)Google Scholar
- Zhu XF, Sun Y, Zhang BC, Mansoori N, Wan JX, Liu Y, Wang ZW, Shi YZ, Zhou YH, Zheng SJ (2014) TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE27 affects aluminum sensitivity by modulating the O-acetylation of xyloglucan and aluminum-binding capacity in arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 166:181–189. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.114.243808 CrossRefGoogle Scholar