Comparison on physiological adaptation and phosphorus use efficiency of upland rice and lowland rice under alternate wetting and drying irrigation
As one of the most widely promoted water-saving irrigation strategies for rice, alternate wetting and drying irrigation (AWD) can not only save water but also increase mineral nutrient use efficiency. In this study, we compared the growth conditions of four rice varieties (two lowland and two upland varieties) under three irrigation regimes: continuously flooded (CF), alternate wetting and moderate soil drying (AWD15) and alternate wetting and severe soil drying (AWD30). AWD15 and AWD30 enabled the plants to receive fewer irrigation events and less irrigation water than CF, thereby saving both water resources and labor. AWD15 reduced redundant vegetative growth, promoted root growth, and increased the root-shoot ratio and harvest index. AWD15 increased the grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) of upland rice and maintained the grain yield while increasing the WUE and PUE of lowland rice. More developed root systems under AWD helped upland rice to maintain a higher water status than lowland rice when plants were subjected to soil drying, which resulted in superior performance in grain yield in upland rice. AWD30 could not reconcile the demands of higher yield and the desire to reduce irrigation water use because it decreased grain yield. The results indicate that AWD15 irrigation of rice can not only increase rice yield and WUE but also enhance PUE, which can potentially reduce the use of phosphorus fertilizers. The results provide theoretical and technical support for improving rice cultivation.
KeywordsWater use efficiency Phosphorus use efficiency Root growth traits Water-efficient irrigation Root oxidation activity
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31761130073), Research Grant of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (KXGH17005), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017M622801), Shenzhen Overseas Talents Innovation and Entrepreneurship Funding Scheme (The Peacock Scheme, KQTD201101) and Hong Kong Research Grant Council (AoE/M-05/12, AoE/M-403/16, CUHK14122415, 14160516, 14177617).
JZ and WX designed experiments. TS, FX, WY, YZ, TL, MC, QH and YT performed experiments. TS, FX, WY and YZ analysed data. JZ, WX, TS, FX, WY and YZ wrote the manuscript. JZ and WX critically commented and revised it.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
- Blackwell MSA, Brookes PC, de la Fuente-Martinez N, Murray PJ, Snars KE, Williams JK, Haygarth PM (2009) Effects of soil drying and rate of re-wetting on concentrations and forms of phosphorus in leachate. Biol Fertil Soils 45:635–643. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-009-0375-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Butterly CR, Bünemann EK, McNeill AM, Baldock JA, Marschner P (2009) Carbon pulses but not phosphorus pulses are related to decreases in microbial biomass during repeated drying and rewetting of soils. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1406–1416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.03.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cock J, Yoshida S, Forno DA (1976) Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. International Rice Research Institute, Manila.Google Scholar
- Dodd IC, Puértolas J, Huber K, Pérez-Pérez JG, Wright HR, Blackwell MS (2015) The importance of soil drying and re-wetting in crop phytohormonal and nutritional responses to deficit irrigation. J Exp Bot 66:2239–2252Google Scholar
- GRiSP (ed) (2013) Rice almanac. 4th edn. International Rice Research Institute, Los BaňosGoogle Scholar
- Guerra LC (1998) Producing more rice with less water from irrigated systems, vol 5. IWMI, ColomboGoogle Scholar
- Heffer P, Prud homme M, Muirheid B, Isherwood K (2006) Phosphorus fertilisation: issues and outlook. Proceedings-international fertiliser society, IFS, 1999Google Scholar
- Jeong K (2016) Phosphorus remobilization during grain filling in rice, PhD thesis. Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.Google Scholar
- Mao Z (2001) Water efficient irrigation and environmentally sustainable irrigated rice production in China. Int Comm Irrig Drain. http://www.icid.org/watmao.pdf
- Peng S, Bouman B (2007) Prospects for genetic improvement to increase lowland rice yields with less water and nitrogen. Frontis 21:249–264Google Scholar
- Richards M, Sander BO (2014) Alternate wetting and drying in irrigated rice. http://hdl.handle.net/10568/35402
- Roberts T, Stewart W (2002) Inorganic phosphorus and potassium production and reserves. Better Crops 86:6–7Google Scholar
- Sandhu B, Khera K, Prihar S, Singh B (1980) Irrigation needs and yield of rice on a sandy-loam soil as affected by continuous and intermittent submergence. Indian J Agric Sci 50:492–496Google Scholar
- Turner BL, Baxter R, Whitton BA (2003) Nitrogen and phosphorus in soil solutions and drainage streams in Upper Teesdale, northern England: implications of organic compounds for biological nutrient limitation. Sci Total Environ 314–316:153–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00101-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang J, Zhang J (2010) Crop management techniques to enhance harvest index in rice. J Exp Bot 61(12):3177–3189Google Scholar