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Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 82, Issue 2, pp 305–315 | Cite as

Regulating the regulators: responses of four plant growth regulators during clonal propagation of Lachenalia montana

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
  • Lenka Plačková
  • Nqobile A. Masondo
  • Stephen O. Amoo
  • Mack Moyo
  • Ondřej Novák
  • Karel Doležal
  • Johannes Van StadenEmail author
Original paper
  • 404 Downloads

Abstract

Lachenalia species are endemic southern African plants with narrow geographical distribution, and are well-traded as ornamental plants in the international floriculture industry. In an attempt to have a better understanding of their growth and hormonal physiology, we evaluated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) during the clonal regeneration of Lachenalia montana. An auxin (α-naphthaleneacetic acid = NAA) and three cytokinin (CK) types (benzyladenine = BA, meta-topolin riboside = mTR and isopentenyladenine = iP), each at three concentrations (1, 5 and 10 µM), were tested and the effect of these PGRs on the accumulation of endogenous CK metabolites was evaluated to provide clues on the observed morphological responses. As the most efficient PGR, 10 µM mTR treatment produced the highest number of shoots (approximately five shoots per explant) while 1 µM BA-treated plants had more bulbs (approximately three bulbs per plantlet). Rooting was generally lower with increasing concentration of PGRs especially with the aromatic-type CKs. Based on the concentrations of endogenous CKs, 10 µM mTR regenerants also had the highest CKs (40 142.5 pmol g−1 DW) which were mainly of the aromatic-type (98%). In terms of the functional role of the CKs, O-glucosides (which are reversible CK storage forms) were the most dominant CK-type in the regenerants from 10 µM mTR treatment. On the other hand, the poor rooting, mostly prominent in regenerants from BA treatments was closely related to the high accumulation of N 9-glucosides (well-known CK metabolites directly involved in rooting inhibition) when compared to regenerants from other treatments. Overall, the current findings provide evidence on the interrelationship existing among the exogenous PGRs, phenotypic responses and the endogenous CKs in the in vitro regenerants.

Keywords

Asparagaceae Floriculture Phytohormones Physiological disorders meta-Topolin Ornamentals 

Abbreviations

BA

N 6-Benzyladenine

BA9G

N 6-Benzyladenine-9-glucoside

BAR

N 6 -Benzyladenine-9-riboside

BAR5′MP

N 6 -Benzyladenine-9-riboside-5′-monophosphate

CK

Cytokinin

cZ

cis-Zeatin

cZOG

cis-Zeatin-O-glucoside

cZR

cis-Zeatin-9-riboside

cZR5′MP

cis-Zeatin-9-riboside-5′-monophosphate

cZROG

cis-Zeatin-O-glucoside riboside

DHZ

Dihydrozeatin

DHZOG

Dihydrozeatin-O-glucoside

DHZR

Dihydrozeatin-9-riboside

DHZROG

Dihydrozeatin-O-glucoside riboside

ESI

Electro-spray interface

iP

N 6-Isopentenyladenine

iPR

N 6-Isopentenyladenine-9-riboside

iPR5′MP

N 6-Isopentenyladenine-9-riboside-5′-monophosphate

MS

Murashige and Skoog medium

mT

meta-Topolin

mT9G

meta-Topolin-9-glucoside

mTOG

meta-Topolin-O-glucoside

mTR

meta-Topolin-9-riboside

mTR5′MP

meta-Topolin-9-riboside-5′-monophosphate

mTROG

meta-Topolin-O-glucoside riboside

NAA

α-Naphthaleneacetic acid

oT

ortho-Topolin

oTR

ortho-Topolin-9-riboside

PPF

Photosynthetic photon flux density

pT

para-Topolin

pTR

para-Topolin-9-riboside

pTROG

para-Topolin-O-glucoside riboside

tZ

trans-Zeatin

tZOG

trans-Zeatin-O-glucoside

tZR

trans-Zeatin-9-riboside

tZR5′MP

trans-Zeatin-9-riboside-5′-monophosphate

tZROG

trans-Zeatin-O-glucoside riboside

UHPLC®

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof G. D. Duncan for the generous gift of bulbs used for the study. This work was financially supported by the University of KwaZulu-Natal and National Research Foundation (Green Economy Fellowship—U98028), South Africa. Additional finance was provided by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic (the Program “Návrat” for Research, Development, and Innovations, no. LK21306), National Program for Sustainability (Grant LO1204) and the Czech Science Foundation (Grant 14-34792S). We thank Mrs Alison Young (UKZN Botanical Garden, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa) and her staff for maintaining the mother plants in the greenhouse. We acknowledge the contribution of the Southern African Systems Analysis Centre, the National Research Foundation and the Department of Science and Technology in South Africa as well as the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis in Austria.

Author contributions

AOA conceived the research idea and designed the experiments. Micropropagation experiments and data collection were conducted by AOA, NAM, MM and SOA. LP and ON conducted and (together with KD) analysed the CK data. AOA prepared the draft manuscript with help of all the other authors. KD prepared mTR, KD and JVS contributed research facilities/reagents/materials and supervised the research. All authors read and edited the final manuscript.

Supplementary material

10725_2017_260_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (30 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 30 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
    • 1
  • Lenka Plačková
    • 2
  • Nqobile A. Masondo
    • 1
  • Stephen O. Amoo
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mack Moyo
    • 1
    • 4
  • Ondřej Novák
    • 2
  • Karel Doležal
    • 2
  • Johannes Van Staden
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal, PietermaritzburgScottsvilleSouth Africa
  2. 2.Laboratory of Growth Regulators & Department of Chemical Biology and Genetics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of SciencePalacký University and Institute of Experimental Botany AS CROlomoucCzech Republic
  3. 3.Agricultural Research Council, Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental PlantsPretoriaSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Applied SciencesCape Peninsula University of TechnologyBellvilleSouth Africa

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