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Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 695–706 | Cite as

Effects of application of salicylic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity in perennial ryegrass

  • Xiaoying Bai
  • Yuanjie Dong
  • Jing Kong
  • Linlin Xu
  • Shuang Liu
Original Paper

Abstract

To study the exogenous salicylic acid (SA) to alleviate the cadmium (Cd) toxicity in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), ryegrass plants subjected to 100 μM CdCl2 exposure were treated with different concentrations of SA, and Cd toxicity was evaluated by the decreases in plant growth and chlorophyll content. In Cd-treated plants, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase, decreased dramatically in both shoots and roots, whereas the accumulation of superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly. Excess Cd also decreased soluble protein and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents, increased accumulation of Cd in both shoots and roots; furthermore, the absorption of micronutrients was inhibited. Addition of 200 μM SA had the most significant alleviating effect against Cd toxicity while the addition of 400 μM SA had no significant effect with Cd treatment. Addition of 100, 200, 300 μM SA considerably increased chlorophyll content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, increased the uptake and translocation of mineral elements, and decreased H2O2 and MDA accumulation in both shoots and roots of Cd-stressed plants. Addition of 200 μM SA not only decreased the Cd uptake in ryegrass, but also decreased the root-to-shoot translocation of Cd and changed its subcellular distribution in plants. Addition of 200 μM SA increased Cd concentrations in soluble fraction and cell wall in both shoots and roots markedly, with the majority of Cd associated with the cell wall and the soluble fraction and a minor part of Cd present in the cell organelle. Based on these results, we conclude that the optimal concentrations of exogenous SA could alleviate Cd-induced stress and promote ryegrass plant growth.

Keywords

Ryegrass Cd SA Antioxidative systems Ion accumulation Subcellular distribution 

Abbreviations

SA

Salicylic acid

Cd

Cadmium

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

POD

Peroxidase

CAT

Catalase

O2·−

Superoxide anion radical

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

MDA

Malondialdehyde

AsA

Ascorbic acid

PCs

Phytochelatins

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors thank Pingping Yang (College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, China) for her supplying instruments and patient guidance. The authors also thank English Lecturer Mr Stuart Craig MA (England, Taishan University of china) and Dr. G. Jones (University of Florida, USA), for their critical reading and revision of the manuscript. Special acknowledgements are given to the editors and reviewers. This research work was financially supported by the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (ZR2013CM003) and a Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program (J14LF08).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoying Bai
    • 1
  • Yuanjie Dong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jing Kong
    • 1
  • Linlin Xu
    • 1
  • Shuang Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Resources and EnvironmentShandong Agricultural UniversityTai’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Chinese National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer ResourcesTai’anPeople’s Republic of China

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