Evidence of phytohormones and phenolic acids variability in garden-waste-derived vermicompost leachate, a well-known plant growth stimulant
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Cytokinins, auxins, abscisic acid, gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs) as well as the phenolic acid content in three batches of vermicompost leachate (VCL) were quantified using ultra high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. N 6-isopentenyladenine formed the major (60 %) proportion of the CK content while dihydrozeatin had the lowest (<0.02 %) concentration. Indole-3-acetic acid ranged from approximately 0.55–0.77 pmol/mL. A total of 18 GAs including bioactive forms and metabolic end products were observed in the VCL samples. Cathasterone had the highest (2,500–3,200 fg/mL) concentration while brassinolide was the lowest (1–5 fg/mL) abundant BRs found. Phenolic acids quantified were protocatechuic acid (3–3.6 µg/mL), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (2.5–2.8 µg/mL), p-coumaric acid (1–1.7 µg/mL) and ferulic acid (0–4 µg/mL). These results provide an indication of the rich diversity in natural PGRs and phytochemicals in VCL which may inevitably contribute to the numerous favorable physiological responses elicited by VCL application to plants.
KeywordsAbscisic acid Biostimulant Brassinosteroids Cytokinins Gibberellins Phenolics
Multiple reaction monitoring
Plant growth regulator
Ultra high performance liquid chromatography
The Claude Leon Foundation, University of KwaZulu-Natal, and National Research Foundation, South Africa are thanked for financial support. This work was also financed by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic (the Program “Návrat” for Research, Development, and Innovations, no. LK21306), the Czech Science Foundation (Grant 14-34792S) and by the National Program for Sustainability (Grant. LO1204). We thank to Hana Martínková, Jarmila Greplová, Marie Vitásková and Andrea Novotná for excellent technical assistance.
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