Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 483–492 | Cite as

Evidence of phytohormones and phenolic acids variability in garden-waste-derived vermicompost leachate, a well-known plant growth stimulant

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
  • Wendy A. Stirk
  • Manoj G. Kulkarni
  • Danuše Tarkowská
  • Veronika Turečková
  • Jiří Gruz
  • Michaela Šubrtová
  • Aleš Pěnčík
  • Ondřej Novák
  • Karel Doležal
  • Miroslav Strnad
  • Johannes Van Staden
Original Paper

Abstract

Cytokinins, auxins, abscisic acid, gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs) as well as the phenolic acid content in three batches of vermicompost leachate (VCL) were quantified using ultra high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. N6-isopentenyladenine formed the major (60 %) proportion of the CK content while dihydrozeatin had the lowest (<0.02 %) concentration. Indole-3-acetic acid ranged from approximately 0.55–0.77 pmol/mL. A total of 18 GAs including bioactive forms and metabolic end products were observed in the VCL samples. Cathasterone had the highest (2,500–3,200 fg/mL) concentration while brassinolide was the lowest (1–5 fg/mL) abundant BRs found. Phenolic acids quantified were protocatechuic acid (3–3.6 µg/mL), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (2.5–2.8 µg/mL), p-coumaric acid (1–1.7 µg/mL) and ferulic acid (0–4 µg/mL). These results provide an indication of the rich diversity in natural PGRs and phytochemicals in VCL which may inevitably contribute to the numerous favorable physiological responses elicited by VCL application to plants.

Keywords

Abscisic acid Biostimulant Brassinosteroids Cytokinins Gibberellins Phenolics 

Abbreviations

ABA

Abscisic acid

BRs

Brassinosteroids

CKs

Cytokinins

cZ

cis-Zeatin

cZ9G

cis-Zeatin-9-glucoside

cZOG

cis-Zeatin-O-glucoside

cZR

cis-Zeatin riboside

cZRMP

cis-Zeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate

cZROG

cis-Zeatin-O-glucoside riboside

DHZ

Dihydrozeatin

DHZ9G

Dihydrozeatin-9-glucoside

DHZOG

Dihydrozeatin-O-glucoside

DHZR

Dihydrozeatin riboside

DHZRMP

Dihydrozeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate

DHZROG

Dihydrozeatin-O-glucoside riboside

GAs

Gibberellins

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid

IAC

Immunoaffinity chromatography

iP

N6-Isopentenyladenine

iP9G

N6-Isopentenyladenine-9-glucoside

iPR

N6-Isopentenyladenosine

iPRMP

N6-Isopentenyladenosine-5′-monophosphate

IPT

Isopentenyltransferase

MRM

Multiple reaction monitoring

PGR

Plant growth regulator

SPE

Solid-phase extraction

tZ

trans-Zeatin

tZ9G

trans-Zeatin-9-glucoside

tZOG

trans-Zeatin-O-glucoside

tZR

trans-Zeatin riboside

tZRMP

trans-Zeatin riboside-5′-monophosphate

tZROG

trans-Zeatin-O-glucoside riboside

UHPLC

Ultra high performance liquid chromatography

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adeyemi O. Aremu
    • 1
  • Wendy A. Stirk
    • 1
  • Manoj G. Kulkarni
    • 1
  • Danuše Tarkowská
    • 2
  • Veronika Turečková
    • 2
  • Jiří Gruz
    • 2
  • Michaela Šubrtová
    • 2
  • Aleš Pěnčík
    • 2
  • Ondřej Novák
    • 2
  • Karel Doležal
    • 2
  • Miroslav Strnad
    • 2
  • Johannes Van Staden
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalScottsvilleSouth Africa
  2. 2.Laboratory of Growth Regulators & Department of Chemical Biology and Genetics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of SciencePalacký University & Institute of Experimental Botany AS CROlomoucCzech Republic

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