The effect of low temperature on sugar content and activities of key enzymes related to sucrose metabolism in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) branches during overwintering covered with soil was investigated. We measured the contents of soluble sugar and the activities of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SS), acid invertase (AI) and neutral invertase (NI) of three grape varieties with different freezing tolerance, Beta, Vidal and Merlot, in October, 2011, January, 2012 and March, 2012. The result showed that: total soluble sugar had the significant negative correlation, −0.988, with temperature during overwintering covered with soil. The content of hexose was about twofold content of sucrose in January, while sucrose increased and the hexose decreased to a very low level in March, the ratios between hexose and sucrose declined to 0.26, 0.15 and 0.18. Sucrose was more important than hexose in protecting grape branches from cold injury under low temperature, but non-freezing. The accumulation of sucrose was mostly due to the elevation of the SPS activity, whereas the increase of hexose was due to the enhanced AI activity. Three grape varieties responded to low temperature positively as reflected by the variations of physiological and biochemical characteristics, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and proline. Besides, by the principal components analysis and combined with cultivation practices, among twelve characteristics, the sugar metabolism mainly contributed to the difference of the cold resistance. The results indicated that sucrose metabolism regulation played an important role during overwintering covered with soil, and it was the key factor to explain the difference of cold resistance.
Sucrose metabolism Low temperature Wine grape Overwintering
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work was supported partially by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31360298), Department of Agriculture of Gansu Province (Project # GNSW-2010-16) and Sheng Tong-Sheng foundation of Gansu Agriculture University(Project # GSAU-STS-1227).
Jacob GM, Valentina MR, George R, Nicholas JK (2006) The response of carbohydrate metabolism in potato tubers to low temperature. Plant Cell Physiol 47(9):1309–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaurin AI, Junttila O, Hansen J (1981) Seasonal changes in frost hardiness in cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) in relation to carbohydrate content with special reference to sucrose. Physiol Planta 52:310–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keller E, Steffen KL (1995) Increased chilling tolerance and altered carbon metabolism in tomato leaves following application of mechanical stress. Physiol Planta 93:519–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kishitani S, Watanabe K, Yasuda S, Arakawa K, Takabe T (1994) Accumulation of glycine betaine during cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in leaves of winter and spring barley plants. Plant Cell Environ 17:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krause KP, Hill L, Reimholz R, Nielsen TH, Sonnewald U, Stitt M (1998) Sucrose metabolism in cold-stored potato tubers with decreased expression of sucrose phosphate synthase. Plant Cell Environ 21:285–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nielsen TH, Skiarbek HC, Karlsen P (1991) Carbohydrate metabolism during fruit development in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants. Physiol Plant 82:311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perras M, Sarhan F (1984) Energy state of spring and winter wheat during cold hardening. Soluble sugars and adenine nucleotides. Physiol Planta 60:129–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Purvis AC, Grierson W (1982) Accumulation of reducing sugar and resistance of grapefruit peel to chilling injury as related to winter temperatures. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 107:139–142Google Scholar
Repo T, Mononen K, Alvila L, Pakkanen TT, Hanninen H (2008) Cold acclimation of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) at its northernmost distribution range. Environ Exp Bot 63:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sasaki H, Ichimura K, Oda M (1996) Changes in sugar content during cold acclimation and deacclimation of cabbage seedlings. Ann Bot 78:365–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shao HB, Chu LY, Lu ZH, Kang CM (2008) Primary antioxidant free radical scavenging and redox signaling pathways in higher plant cells. Int J Biol Sci 4:8–14PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shu HM, Zhou ZG, Xu NY, Wang YH, Zheng M (2009) Sucrose metabolism in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibre under low temperature during fibre development. Europ J Agron 31:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsai M, Ou L, Setter TL (1985) Effect of increased temperature in apical regions of maize ears on starch-synthesis enzymes and accumulation of sugars and starch. Plant Physiol 79:852–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uemura M, Steponkus PL (2003) Modification of the intracellular sugar content alters the incidence of freeze-induced membrane lesions of protoplasts isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Plant Cell Environ 26:1083–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wample RL, Bary A (1992) Harvest date as a factor in carbohydrate storage and cold hardiness of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 117:32–36Google Scholar
Wardlaw IF, Willenbrink J (1994) Carbohydrate storage and mobilization by the culm of wheat between heading and grain maturity: the relation to sucrose synthase and sucrose–phosphate synthase. Aust J Plant Physiol 21:251–271Google Scholar
Weber APM (2004) Solute transporters as connecting elements between cytosol and plastid stroma. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7:247–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winter H, Huber SC (2000) Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants. Localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes. Crit Rev Plant Sci 19:31–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yu XJ (1985) The activity measurement of sucrose syntheses and sucrose phosphate synthase. Experimental manual of plant physiology. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar