Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 66, Issue 2, pp 191–202 | Cite as

Nitrate, abscisic acid and gibberellin interactions on the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination

  • Tingting Dong
  • Jianhua Tong
  • Langtao Xiao
  • Hongyan Cheng
  • Songquan SongEmail author
Original paper


Germination of lettuce seeds has obvious thermoinhibition, but the mechanism for thermoinhibition of seed germination is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the interactions of nitrate, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin on seed germination at high temperatures to understand further the mechanism for thermoinhibition of seed germination. Our results showed that lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. ‘Jianye Xianfeng No. 1’) seeds exhibited notable thermoinhibiton of germination at ≥17°C in darkness, and at ≥23°C in light, but the thermoinhibited seeds did not exhibit secondary dormancy. Thermoinhibition of seed germination at 23 or 25°C in light was notably decreased by 5 and 10 mM nitrate, and the stimulatory effects were markedly prevented by nitric oxide (NO) scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. The sensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA increased with increasing temperature. Thermoinhibition of seed germination was markedly decreased by fluridone (an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) and GA3, and was increased by diniconazole (an inhibitor of the ABA-catabolizing enzyme ABA 8′-hydroxylase) and paclobutrazol (an inhibitor of GA biosynthetic pathway). The effect of fluridone in decreasing thermoinhibition of seed germination was obviously antagonized by paclobutrazol, and that of GA3 was notably added to by fluridone, and that of nitrate was antagonized by paclobutrazol, diniconazole and ABA and was added to by GA3 and fluridone. Our data show that thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination is decreased by nitrate in a NO-dependent manner, which is antagonized by ABA, diniconazole and paclobutrazol and added by fluridone.


Inhibitor of ABA and GA biosynthesis Lactuca sativa ‘Jianye Xianfeng No. 1’ Nitrate PTIO Phytohormone Thermoinhibition of seed germination 



Abscisic acid




Gibberellic acid


Nitric oxide


2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide


Sodium nitroprusside



We are grateful to Dr. Zhijun Deng and Ms. Meng Li (Group of Seed Physiology and Biotechnology, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences) for providing some experimental help, to National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (31171624, 30870223) for supporting this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tingting Dong
    • 1
  • Jianhua Tong
    • 2
  • Langtao Xiao
    • 2
  • Hongyan Cheng
    • 1
  • Songquan Song
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of BotanyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.The Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Phytohormone and Growth DevelopmentHunan Agricultural UniversityChangshaChina

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