Nickel-induced oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant defence in rice seedlings
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Seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Pant-12 grown in sand cultures containing 200 and 400 μM NiSO4, showed a decrease in length and fresh weight of roots and shoots. Nickel was readily taken up by rice seedlings and the concentration was higher in roots than shoots. Nickel-treated seedlings showed increased rates of superoxide anion (O 2 •− ) production, elevated levels of H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) demonstrating enhanced lipid peroxidation, and a decline in protein thiol levels indicative of increased protein oxidation compared to controls. With progressively higher Ni concentrations, non-protein thiol and ascorbate (AsA) increased, whereas the level of low-molecular-weight thiols (such as glutathione and hydroxyl-methyl glutathione), the ratio of these thiols to their corresponding disulphides, and the ratio of AsA to dehydroascorbic acid declined in the seedlings. Among the antioxidant enzymes studied, the activities of all isoforms of superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, Mn SOD and Fe SOD), guaiacol peroxidases (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) increased in Ni-treated seedlings, while no clear alteration in catalase activity was evident. Activity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR)—significantly increased in Ni-treated seedlings. However such increase was apparently insufficient to maintain the intracellular redox balance. Results suggest that Ni induces oxidative stress in rice plants, resulting in enhanced lipid peroxidation and decline in protein thiol levels, and that (hydroxyl-methyl) glutathione and AsA in conjunction with Cu-Zn SOD, GPX and APX are involved in stress response.
KeywordsAntioxidants Ascorbate Glutathione Isoform Nickel Oxidative stress Reactive oxygen species Rice Oryza sativa L.
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