Differential effects of abscisic acid and ethylene on the fruit maturation of Litchi chinensis Sonn.
- 455 Downloads
Two litchi cultivars, a well-coloured ‘Nuomici’ and a poorly coloured ‘Feizixiao’, were used to investigate changes in endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and ethylene production during fruit maturation and to test the effects of exogenous growth regulators on litchi fruit maturation. Abscisic acid concentration in both the aril and pericarp increased with fruit maturation. Transfusion of ABA into the fruit 3 weeks before harvest accelerated, whereas transfusion of 6-benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) retarded sugar accumulation and pigmentation. The effect of 6-BA was assumed to link with the resultant decrease in ABA. In contrast, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC oxidase (ACO) activities in the aril remained relatively constant during sugar accumulation. Transfusion of aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) significantly decreased ACC concentration but had no effect on sugar accumulation in the aril. These results suggested that endogenous ABA, but not ethylene, was critical for the sugar accumulation. However, the roles of ABA and ethylene in pericarp pigmentation were rather complicated. Application of exogenous ABA promoted anthocyanin synthesis significantly, but had very little effect on chlorophyll degradation. Ethylene production in litchi fruit decreased with development, but a transient increase of endogenous ethylene production was detected just around the colour break in ‘Nuomici’. Enhanced ACO activity in the pericarp was detected during pigmentation. Ethrel at 400 mg l−1 showed no effect on pericarp coloration, but accelerated chlorophyll degradation and anthocyanin synthesis at a much higher concentration (800 mg l−1). Fruit dipped in ABA solution alone yielded no effect on chlorophyll degradation, but the combined use of ABA and Ethrel at 400 mg l−1 enhanced both chlorophyll degradation and anthocyanin synthesis. These results indicated the possible synergistic action of ethylene and ABA during litchi fruit colouration. ABA is suggested to play a more crucial role in anthocyanin synthesis, while ethylene is more important in chlorophyll degradation. ABA can increase the sensitivity of pericarp tissue to ethylene.
KeywordsLitchi chinensis Sonn. Fruit maturation Abscisic acid (ABA) Ethylene 6-Benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA)
This project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Contract No. 30200188).
- Abeles FB, Morgan PW, Saltveit Jr (1992) Ethylene in plant biology, 2nd edn. Academic, New York, p 581Google Scholar
- Akamine EK, Goo T (1973) Respiration and ethylene production during ontogeny of fruit. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 98:381–383Google Scholar
- Han DH, Lee CH (2004) The effects of GA3, CPPU and ABA application on the quality of kyoho (Vitis vinifera L.x V. labrusca L.) grape. Acta Hort 640:193–197Google Scholar
- Huang XM (1998) Studies on the mechanisms of some veraison-related physiological aspects in grape berries. Ph.D. Dissertation, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, ChinaGoogle Scholar
- Jiang JP, Su MX, Lee PM (1986) The production and physiological effects of ethylene during ontogeny and after harvest of litchi fruits. Acta Phytophysiol Sin 12:95–103Google Scholar
- Kondo S, Inoue K (1997) Abscisic acid (ABA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content during growth of ‘Satohnishiki’ cherry fruit, and the effect of ABA and ethephon application on fruit quality. J Hort Sci 72:221–227Google Scholar
- Kondo S, Uthaibutra J, Gemma H (1991) Comparison of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, abscisic acid and anthocyanin content of some apple cultivars during fruit growth and maturation. J Jpn Soc Hort Sic 60:505–511Google Scholar
- Lara I, Vendrell M (2000a) Changes in abscisic acid levels, ethylene biosynthesis and protein patterns during fruit maturation of apples. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 125:183–189Google Scholar
- Lara I, Vendrell M (2000b) Development of ethylene-synthesizing capacity in preclimacteric apples: interaction between abscisic acid and ethylene. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 125:505–512Google Scholar
- Ma BZ, Cheng YE (1984) The method of testing anthocyanin content in apple pericarp. China Fruits 4:49–51Google Scholar
- Martinez GA, Chaves AR, Anon MC (1996) Effect of exogenous application of gibberellin acid on color change and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chlorophyllase, and peroxidase activities during ripening of strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). J Plant Growth Regul 15:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pech PC, Sharkawi I, Chaves A, Li Z, Lelievre JM, Bouzayen M, Zegzouti H, Latche A (2002) Recent developments on the role of ethylene in the ripening of climacteric fruit. Acta Hort 587:489–495Google Scholar
- Sharma SB, Ray PK, Rai R (1986) The use of growth regulators for early ripening of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). J Hort Sci 61:533–534Google Scholar
- Wang HC, Huang HB, Huang XM, Hu ZQ (2006) Sugar and acid compositions in the arils of Litchi chinensis Sonn.: cultivar differences and evidence for the absence of succinic acid. J Hort Sci Biotech 81:57–62Google Scholar
- Wu YM, Gu CQ, Tai GF, Liu Y (1992) The role of ABA and ethylene in the ripening and senescence of strawberry fruits. Acta Phytophysiol Sin 18:167–172Google Scholar
- Zhang W, Lü ZS (1983) Relationship between abscisic acid and apricot fruit ripening. Acta Bot Sin 25:537–543Google Scholar