Advertisement

Plant Growth Regulation

, 51:99 | Cite as

Effect of 5-sulfosalicylic acid on antioxidant activity in relation to vase life of Gladiolus cut flowers

  • K. Ezhilmathi
  • V. P. Singh
  • A. Arora
  • R. K. Sairam
Original Paper

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of 5-sulfosalicylic acid (5-SSA) on the vase life of cut flowers of Gladiolus grandiflora variety ‘Green Willow’. The vase solution having 5-SSA significantly increased cumulative uptake of vase solution, vase life, number of opened florets and decreased the number of unopened florets compared to the controls. Spikes kept in vase solution containing 5-SSA also exhibited lower respiration rates, lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, and higher membrane stability, soluble protein concentration, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Results suggest that 5-SSA increases vase life by increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity of the Gladiolus cut flowers.

Keywords

Catalase Gladiolus Lipoxygenase Lipid peroxidation Membrane stability index Sulfosalicylic acid Superoxide dismutase Vase life 

Abbreviations

CAT

Catalase

LOX

Lipoxygenase

MSI

Membrane stability index

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

5-SSA

5-Sulfosalicylic acid

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TBARS

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

References

  1. Aebi H (1984) Catalase in vitro. Meth Enzymol 105:121–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arora A, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC (2002) Oxidative stress and antioxidant system in plants. Curr Sci 82:1227–1238Google Scholar
  3. Asada K (1992) Ascorbate peroxidase – a hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzyme in plants. Physiol Plant 55:235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker JE, Wang CY, Terlizzi DE (1985) Delay of senescence in carnations by pyrazon, phenidone analogues and Tiron. Hort Sci 20:121–122Google Scholar
  5. Baker JE, Lalang CY, Lieberman M, Hardonberg R (1977) Delay of senescence in Carnation by a rhizobitoxine analog and sodium benzoate. Hort Sci 12:28–39Google Scholar
  6. Baker JE, Lieberman M, Anderson JD (1978) Inhibition of ethylene production in fruit slices by rhizobitoxine analogs and free radical scavengers. Plant Physiol 61:886–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bieleski RL, Reid MS (1992) Physiological changes accompanying senescence in the ephemeral daylily flower. Plant Physiol 98:1042–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Borochov A, Spiegelstein H, Porat R, Field T (1995) Membrane lipids involved in the regulation of flower senescence. Acta Hort 405:240–245Google Scholar
  9. Bowler C, Van Montague M, Inje D (1992) Superoxide dismutase and stress tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43:83–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradford M (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein–dye binding. Ann Biochem 72:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buchanan-Wollaston V, Earl S, Harrison E, Mathas E, Navabpour S, Page T, Pink D (2003) The molecular analysis of leaf senescence – a genomics approach. Plant Biotechnol J 1:3–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bueno P, del Rio LA (1992) Purification and properties of glyoxysomal cuperozinc superoxide dismutase from water melon (Citrullus vulgaris Scrad.). Plant Physiol 98:331–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Celikel FG, Van Doorn WG (1995) Solute leakage, lipid peroxidation and protein degradation during the senescence of Iris petals. Physiol Plant 94:515–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chia LS, Thompson JE, Dumbroff EB (1981) Stimulation of leaf senescence on membranes by treatment with paraquat. Plant Physiol 67:415–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. del Rio LA, Sandalio LM, Palma JM, Bueno P, Corpas FJ (1992) Metabolism of oxygen radicals in peroxisomes and cellular implications. Free Radical Biol Med 13:557–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dhindsa RS, Plumb-Dhindsa D, Thorpe TA (1981) Leaf senescence: correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. J Exp Bot 32:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doderer A, Kokkelink I, Van der Veen S, Valk BE, Schram AW, Douma AC (1992) Purification and characterization of two lipoxygenase isoenzymes from germinating barley. Biochem Biophys Acta 1120:97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Droillard MJ, Paulin A (1987) Evolution of polar lipids and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities during the senescence of petals of cut carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Ember). Comptos Rendes des Scances Del Academic des Sciences-III Sciences de la vie 305:439–442Google Scholar
  19. Eason JR, de Vr e’ L (1995) Ethylene-insensitive floral senescence in Sandersonia aurantiaca (Hook.). N Z J Crop Hort Sci 23:447–454Google Scholar
  20. Ezhilmathi K (2001) Physiological and biochemical studies of senescence in Gladiolus. MSc Thesis, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Foyer CH (1993) Ascorbic acid. In: Alscher RC, Hess JL (eds) Antioxidants in higher plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 31–58Google Scholar
  22. Fukuchi-Mizutani M, Ishiguro K, Nakayuama T, Utsunomia Y, Tanaka Y, Kusumi T, Ueda T (2000) Molecular and functional characterization of a rose lipoxygenase cDNA related to flower senescence. Plant Sci 160:129–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hanson AD, Kende H (1975) Ethylene enhanced ion and sucrose efflux in morning glory flower tissue. Plant Physiol 55:663–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Heath RL, Packer L (1968) Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplast I. Kinetics and stochiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 125:189–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones R, McConchie R (1995) Characteristics of petal senescence in a non-climacteric cut flower. Acta Hort 405:216–223Google Scholar
  26. Jones RB, Serek M, Kuo CL, Reid MS (1994) The effect of protein synthesis inhibition on petal senescence in cut bulb flowers. J Am Soc Hort Sci 119:1243–1247Google Scholar
  27. Kellogg DE (1975) The role of phyletic change in the evolution of Pseudocubus vema Radiolaria. Paleobiol 1:359–370Google Scholar
  28. Kenis JD, Silvente ST, Trippi VS (1985) Nitrogen metabolism and senescence associated changes during growth of Carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus). Physiol Plant 65:455–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kunert KJ, Ederer M (1985) Leaf aging and lipid peroxidation: the role of the antioxidants vitamin C, and E. Physiol Plant 65:85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lay-Yee M, Stead AD, Reid MS (1992) Flower senescence in daylily (Haemerocallis). Physiol Plant 86:308–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leopold AC (1975) Aging, senescence and turnover in plants. Bio Sci 25:659–662Google Scholar
  32. Lynch DV, Thompson JE (1984) Lipoxygenase mediated production of superoxide anion in senescing plant tissue. FEBS Lett 173:251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mayak S, Halevy AH (1980) Flower senescence. In: Thimann K (ed) Senescence in plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 131–156Google Scholar
  34. Mayak S, Borochov A, Tirosh T (1985) Transient water stress in carnation flowers: effect of amino-oxyacetic acid. J Expt Bot 36:800–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Panavas T, Rubinstein B (1998) Oxidative events during programmed cell death of Daylily (Hemerocallis hybrid) petals. Plant Sci 133:125–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Prochazkova D, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC, Singh DV (2001) Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity as the basis of senescence in maize leaves. Plant Sci 161:765–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sairam RK (1994) Effect of moisture stress on physiological activities of two contrasting wheat genotypes. Indian J Expt Biol 32:584–593Google Scholar
  38. Sairam RK, Singh DV, Srivastava GC (2003/04) Changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes in sunflower leaves of different age. Biol Plant 47:61–66Google Scholar
  39. Scandalios JG (1993) Oxygen stress and superoxide dismutase. Plant Physiol 101:7–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Serek M, Tamari G, Sisler EC, Borochov A (1995) Inhibition of ethylene-induced senescence symptoms by 1-methyl cyclopropene, a new inhibitor of ethylene action. Phyisol Plant 94:229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Suttle JC, Kende H (1978) Ethylene and senescence in petals of Tradescantia. Plant Physiol 62:267–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sylvestre I, Droillard MJ, Bureau JM, Paulin A (1989) Effects of the ethylene rise on the peroxidation of membrane lipids during senescence of cut Carnations. Plant Physiol Biochem 27:407–413Google Scholar
  43. Thompson JE, Legge RL, Barber RL (1987) The role of free radicals in senescence and wounding. New Phytol 105:317–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thompson SE (1974) The behaviour of cytoplasmic membranes in Phaseolus vulgaris cotyledon during germination. Can J Bot 2:534–541Google Scholar
  45. Van Doorn WG, Stead AD (1994) The physiology of petal senescence which is not initiated by ethylene. In: Scott RJ, Stead AD (eds) Molecular and cellular aspects of plant reproduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 239–254Google Scholar
  46. Van Meeteren Y (1979) Water relations and keeping quality of cut Gerbera flowers VI. Water content, permeability and dry weight of ageing petals. Sci Hort 10:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Watada AE, Herner RC, Kader AA, Romani RJ, Staby GL (1984) Terminology for the description of developmental stages of horticultural crops. Hort Sci 19:20–21Google Scholar
  48. Woltering EJ, Van Doorn WG (1988) Role of ethylene in senescence of petals – morphological and taxonomical relationship. J Exp Bot 39:1605–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Woodson WR, Handa AK (1987) Changes in protein patterns and in vivo protein synthesis during pre senescence and senescence of Hibiscus petals. J Plant Physiol 128:67–75Google Scholar
  50. Woolhouse HW (1984) The biochemistry and regulation of senescence in chloroplasts. Can J Bot 62:2934–2942Google Scholar
  51. Yamane K, Ogata R (1995) Effect of cycloheximide on physiological parameters of Gladiolus florets during growth and senescence. J Jap Soc Hort Sci 64:411–416Google Scholar
  52. Yamane K, Abiru S, Fujishige N, Sakiyama R, Ogata R (1993) Export of soluble sugars and increase in membrane permeability of cut Gladiolus florets during senescence. J Jap Soc Hort Sci 62:575–580Google Scholar
  53. Yamane K, Kawabata S, Fujishige N (1999) Changes in activities of SOD, catalase and peroxidases during senescence of Gladiolus florets. J Jap Soc Hort Sci 68:798–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Ezhilmathi
    • 1
  • V. P. Singh
    • 1
  • A. Arora
    • 1
  • R. K. Sairam
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant PhysiologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations