Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 49, Issue 2–3, pp 137–146 | Cite as

Enhancement of phenylpropanoid enzymes and lignin in Phalaenopsis orchid and their influence on plant acclimatisation at different levels of photosynthetic photon flux

  • Mohammad Babar Ali
  • Serida Khatun
  • Eun-Joo Hahn
  • Kee-Yoeup Paek
Original Paper


Effects of three levels of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF: 60, 160 and 300 µmol m−2s−1) were investigated in one-month-old Phalaenopsis plantlets acclimatised ex vitro. Optimal growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentations, and a high carotenoid:chlorophyll a ratio were obtained at 160 µmol m−2s−1, while net CO2 assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (g), transpiration rate (E) and leaf temperature peaked at 300 µmol m−2s−1, indicating the ability of the plants to grow ex vitro. Adverse effects of the highest PPF were reflected in loss of chlorophyll, biomass, non-protein thiol and cysteine, but increased proline. After acclimatisation, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, shikimate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) increased, as did lignin. Peroxidases (POD), which play an important role in lignin synthesis, were induced in acclimatised plants. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and β-glucosidase (β-GS) activities increased to a maximum in acclimatised plants at 300 µmol m−2s−1. A positive correlation between PAL, CAD activity and lignin concentration was observed, especially at 160 and 300 µmol m−2s−1. The study concludes that enhancement of lignin biosynthesis probably not only adds rigidity to plant cell walls but also induces defence against radiation stress. A PPF of 160 µmol m−2s−1was suitable for acclimatisation when plants were transferred from in vitro conditions.


Acclimatisation Lignin Phalaenopsis Phenylpropanoid enzymes Proline 



Caffeic acid peroxidase


Chlorogenic acid peroxidase


Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase




Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase




Non-protein thiol


Phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride


Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone


Shikimate dehydrogenase


Phenylalanine ammonia lyase


Photosynthetic photon flux


Polyphenol oxidase


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This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE), the Ministry of commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE) and the Ministry of Labour (MOLAB), Republic of Korea through the fostering project of the lab of Excellency. One of the authors (MBA) also wishes to acknowledge the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) for providing financial assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Babar Ali
    • 1
  • Serida Khatun
    • 2
  • Eun-Joo Hahn
    • 2
  • Kee-Yoeup Paek
    • 2
  1. 1.National Food Research Institute Food Biotechnology DivisionMetabolic Regulation LaboratoryTsukuba, IbarakiJapan
  2. 2.Research Center for the Development of Advanced Horticultural TechnologyChungbuk National UniversityCheong-juRepublic of Korea

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