Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 13–19 | Cite as

The Effect of Growth Regulators on Quality Parameters and Ginsenosides Accumulation in Panax quinquefolium L. Roots

  • Kołodziej Barbara
  • Kochan Ewa
  • Kazimierczak Jerzy
  • Chmiel Aleksander


American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) is a perennial medicinal herb originally grown in Canada and USA, and recently also in China, Australia, Holland and Poland. Several commercial preparations are produced from ginseng roots, that are known for their antifatigue, antitumor, antistress and immune system stimulating functions. The medicinal properties are due mainly to the active components – ginsenosides. In this work, the results of field cultivation experiments are presented that examine the effects of foliar application of several growth regulators on quality parameters and ginsenoside content of P. quinuefolium roots. The growth regulators tested, i.e., kinetin, daminozide, mixture of gibberellic acid (GA3) with potassium salt of α-naphthalene acetic acid (kNAA) and new preparation – IPO-1 – benzimidazole derivative (obtained from the Institute of Organic Industry in Warsaw – at present during the process of patent), were applied at a concentration of 100 or 200 mg l−1 in the middle of June in the 2nd year of vegetation. After 4 years of cultivation, the roots were dug up and dried, and subsequently the quantitative analysis of individual saponins (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1) by HPLC was performed. Growth regulators significantly affected quality parameters, morphological features and accumulation of individual and total ginsenosides in ginseng roots. Regardless of doses, the plant roots treated with growth regulators had a higher content of total ginsenosides in comparison to the control. The growth regulators also affected individual ginsenosides level and narrowed the ratio of Rb:Rg group. The application of kinetin, daminozide and benzimidazole derivative for foliar spray during 2nd year of American ginseng vegetation caused a significant increase in air dry weight of roots and aboveground parts whereas the mixture of GA3 and kNAA showed a decreasing effect. An increase of roots size was observed using higher doses (200 mg l−1) of kinetin and daminozide while a decreasing tendency appeared with the application of the other preparations.


American ginseng Ginsenoside content Growth regulator application Panax quinquefolium 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kołodziej Barbara
    • 1
  • Kochan Ewa
    • 2
  • Kazimierczak Jerzy
    • 3
  • Chmiel Aleksander
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Industrial and Medicinal PlantsUniversity of AgricultureLublinPoland
  2. 2.Department of Biology and Pharmaceutical BiotechnologyMedical UniversityŁódźPoland
  3. 3.Insitute of Organic IndustryWarszawa – ŻerańPoland

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